Jurnal Ultima Humaniora, September 2013 ISSN Vol. I, Nomor 2

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1 Jurnal Ultima Humaniora, September 2013 ISSN Vol. I, Nomor 2 Ultima Humaniora merupakan gabungan dua konsep kunci yaitu Ultima yang berarti dalam, berbobot, bernilai dan Humaniora (Latin) yang berarti ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan yang dianggap bertujuan membuat manusia lebih manusiawi, lebih berbudaya. Secara umum, yang tergolong dalam rumpun ilmu humaniora adalah: Teologi, Filsafat, Hukum, Sejarah, Filologi, Bahasa, Budaya & Linguistik (Kajian bahasa), Kesusastraan, Kesenian, dan Psikologi. Jurnal Ultima Humaniora merupakan jurnal ilmiah interdisipliner yang menghimpun gagasan dan riset terkini di bidang Pancasila, kewarganegaraan, religiositas (agama), bahasa Indonesia, bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa asing (EFL), pengembangan metode belajar serta mengajar yang efektif di Perguruan Tinggi, kepemimpinan dan kewirausahaan. Jurnal ini diterbitkan Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, di bawah kordinasi Departemen Mata Kuliah Umum (MKU), secara semi-annual atau dua kali dalam setahun, yaitu pada Februari dan Agustus. Redaksi mengundang para akademisi, pengamat, praktisi, dan siapapun yang berminat untuk menyumbangkan tulisan mengenai topik umum rumpun ilmu humaniora maupun topik khusus Jurnal Ultima Humaniora. Artikel yang dimuat dalam Jurnal Ultima Humaniora tidak selalu mencerminkan pandangan/pendapat redaksi. SUSUNAN REDAKSI Pelindung : Dr. Ninok Leksono Penanggungjawab : Dr.rer.nat P.Y. Topo Suprihadi, Dipl.-Phys Pemimpin Umum : Dr. Ir. P. M. Winarno, M. Kom. Mitra Bestari : Dr. Francisco Budi Hardiman (STF Driyarkara), Dr. Arqom Kuswanjono (Universitas Gadjah Mada), Timothy Mc Kinnon (American Institute for Indonesian Studies) Ketua Dewan Redaksi : Hendar Putranto, M. Hum. Dewan Redaksi : Niknik Kuntarto, M. Hum., Johannes Langgar Billy, M. M., M. V. Santi Hendrawati, M. Hum., Qusthan Firdaus, M. A. Tata Usaha : Yulius Aris, M. Fil., Alexander Aur, M. Hum. Sirkulasi dan Distribusi : Sularmin Keuangan : I Made Gede Suteja, S. E., Regina Fika, S. E. Alamat Redaksi Jurnal Ultima Humaniora: UNIVERSITAS MULTIMEDIA NUSANTARA (UMN) Gedung Rektorat Lantai 2 Jalan Boulevard Gading Serpong, Desa Curug Sangereng, Kecamatan Pagedangan, Kabupaten Tangerang, Banten Telp ext. 2510; Faks: (021) daftarisi.indd 1 11/16/2013 9:33:21 AM

2 ii Daftar Isi Vol I, 2013 DAFTAR ISI Volume I, Nomor 2 Pengantar Redaksi... iii Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems QUSTHAN FIRDAUS Diskursus Local Wisdom: Sebuah Peninjauan Persoalan-persoalan JIMMY JENIARTO Posfenomenologi Ruangcyber: Menelaah Realitas Visual Internet dan Konsep Ruangcyber dalam Ilmu Antropologi BUDI HARTANTO Kritik terhadap Bisnis Nafsu di Jagat Internet: Memaknai Ulang Cinta dan Seksualitas Manusia di Era New Media ALEXANDER AUR Berladang dan Kearifan Lokal Manusia Dayak R. MASRI SAREB PUTRA Demokrasi dan Kekuasaan dalam Pandangan Hidup Orang Jawa ARYANING ARYA KRESNA Pengajaran Pancasila untuk Mahasiswa dengan Metode Partisipatoris Berbasis Imajinasi Rekonstruktif HENDAR PUTRANTO Videografi sebagai Sarana Pembelajaran OSCAR JAYANAGARA Does Education Empower the Indonesian Women? ARIF ROHMAN [Resensi Buku What Money Can t Buy (The Moral Limits of Markets) karya Michael J Sandel, 2012] Ketika Pasar Mencampakkan Moral ARIF SUSANTO daftarisi.indd 2 11/16/2013 9:33:21 AM

3 Pengantar Redaksi iii KATA PENGANTAR Salam kemanusiaan! Sidang pembaca yang budiman, edisi kedua Jurnal Ultima Humaniora akhirnya kembali hadir mengunjungi halaman intelektual Anda di paruh kedua tahun 2013 ini. Edisi kedua menampilkan sembilan artikel panjang dan sebuah resensi buku. Enam artikel pertama membahas tema sentral edisi ini ( Local Wisdom dalam era New Media, ) dan dua artikel berikutnya membahas tema-tema yang menjadi fokus kajian jurnal, yaitu soal Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan serta soal (pengayaan) metode pembelajaran. Artikel terakhir membahas soal wacana dan kebijakan pemberdayaan perempuan ditinjau dari khasanah budaya Jawa. Resensi buku mengulas karya filsuf politik kenamaan dari Amerika Serikat, Michael J Sandel, berjudul What Money Can t Buy (The Moral Limits of Market), terbitan Wacana tentang local wisdom dalam era New Media tidak bisa dipisahkan dari konteks dan Lebenswelt budaya. Culture matters, itu sudah jelas dengan sendirinya. Kebenaran ini tidak hanya berlaku di masa lalu, namun juga di masa sekarang. Di tengah kepungan dan terpaan globalisasi, manusia dalam lokalitas dan temporalitasnya justru mencoba mencari jenis-jenis maupun sumber-sumber pemaknaan budaya yang baru, yang pada gilirannya dapat (a) menjadi benteng dari proses alienasi dan nihilisme, (b) membuahkan pelbagai local wisdom yang tidak hanya merupakan kulminasi serta kristalisasi pengalaman dan refleksi manusia (dalam kelompok serta komunitasnya), namun juga rujukan identitas terkini yang memberikan kepada manusia keberakarannya dalam dimensi ruang dan waktu yang spesifik. Prinsip universalitas serta abstraksi modern sudah mulai banyak ditinggalkan, sejauh itu menyangkut nilai, budaya, dan praksis kebijaksanaan yang mengalir daripadanya. Baik itu dalam dunia industri, periklanan, media, pariwisata, ekonomi, pendidikan, dan lainnya, kita menyaksikan gejala kembalinya pada yang lokal, yang temporal, yang spesifik. Contoh: Rosa dalam iklan extra joss, gak ada lo gak rame versi iklan rokok, terapi herbal khas daerah-daerah tertentu, menjamurnya wisata kuliner, industri kreatif berbasis budaya, dst. Amat disayangkan jika local wisdom yang melimpah ruah dalam ruang-waktu budaya Nusantara ini---yang sayangnya belum terlalu banyak digali potensi-potensinya maupun ditransformasi ke dalam bentuk-bentuk yang lebih berterima--- diaprosiasi dan dikapitalisasi oleh subjek dan pelaku asing (foreign subjects and agents) sebagai eufemisme dari istilah: penjajahan budaya. Pertanyaannya: Bagaimana kita mau memetakan gugus persoalan di atas dalam konteks kajian ilmu-ilmu humaniora? Sejauh mana Media Baru sudah menyumbangkan sesuatu untuk pelestarian dan pengalih-generasian local wisdom (atau justru keberadaan 00-daftarisi.indd 3 11/16/2013 9:33:21 AM

4 iv Pengantar Redaksi Vol I, 2013 mereka mempercepat kepunahannya)? Bagaimanakah pro dan kontra mentasnya era Media Baru---dalam arti interseksi konten, teknologi, industri, dan masyarakat seperti digambarkan Prof. Henry Jenkins dalam bukunya Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (2006)--- sejauh menyangkut keberadaan dan pengadaan kembali (repackaging) local wisdom dalam hidup kita sehari-hari? Enam artikel utama yang dimuat dalam jurnal Ultima Humaniora edisi kedua ini mencoba menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan kunci di atas sekaligus membahas tema sentral edisi kali ini dengan menggunakan sejumlah pendekatan maupun sudut pembahasan. Dua artikel pertama membahas secara konseptual istilah local wisdom. Qusthan Firdaus dalam Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems memetakan secara konseptual sejumlah problematika yang muncul ketika kita menggunakan istilah local wisdom. Secara filosofis dan teliti, Qusthan membangun argumen bahwa ekspresi local wisdom sebaiknya diakhiri karena ia tidak jernih. Persoalan pemetaan local wisdom bisa menjadi rancu khususnya ketika kita akan (1) memaknainya dengan baik; (2) membedakannya sebagai types atau tokens; (3) menanganinya sebagai properti; (4) mengapropriasinya; dan (5) menjustifikasinya. Alih-alih menggunakan istilah local wisdom yang kabur dan serba tak pasti, Qusthan mengusulkan penggunaan istilah local thoughts yang lebih memadai dan kokoh, baik secara filosofis abstrak maupun praksis kontekstual. Sementara itu, masih berkutat di aras abstrak teoretis, Jimmy Jeniarto juga mempersoalkan istilah local wisdom. Baginya, diandaikan terdapat dua pemaknaan Local Wisdom. Pertama, Local Wisdom yang dimaknai sebagai pengetahuan warisan leluhur yang diturunkan melalui tradisi dan bersifat permanen di dalam berbagai era. Kedua, Local Wisdom yang dimaknai sebagai pengetahuan lokal yang merupakan hasil dari kecerdasan lokal dalam menghadapi persoalan hidup yang sifatnya senantiasa berubah sesuai lingkungan jaman. Pengetahuan ini bersifat kontekstual di dalam ruang dan waktu yang berbeda. Dalam dialektika antara dua pendekatan dan pemaknaan inilah Jimmy Jeniarto menyoroti paradoks penggunaan istilah Local Wisdom serta sejumlah skenario yang mungkin terjadi jika persaingan di antara para Local Wisdoms bisa saja mengarah pada upaya dominasi oleh satu ide tunggal. Sementara itu, empat artikel utama berikutnya mencoba melihat secara jeli praksis penggunaan istilah local wisdom dalam (1) posfenomenologi Ruangcyber untuk menggugat sekaligus membaharui realitas yang termediasi, di mana dua porosnya yaitu bahwa relasi manusia dan teknologi informasi mentransformasikan pengalaman manusia tentang dunianya dan mencipta realitas yang terkoneksi dan terdomestikasi sekaligus bahwa refleksi tentang teknologi internet sebagai perangkat hermeneutis dalam kaitannya de ngan dinamika perubahan dunia aktual dan virtual penting untuk diketahui (tulisan Budi Hartanto), (2) bisnis nafsu di dunia maya serta kritik atasnya terkait dengan pemahaman yang lebih mendalam dan luhur soal cinta dan seksualitas dengan mengambil inspirasi dari pemikiran Jean-Luc Marion yang menegaskan kebenaran eksistensial bahwa seks di jagat internet adalah seks yang terlucut dari diri manusia, seks yang mekanistik, seks tanpa humanitas, seks tanpa cinta, dan sebab itulah kita diingatkan agar memulihkan kembali seks dengan mengembalikan seks pada seksualitas (tulisan Alexander Aur), (3) aktivitas berladang dan kearifan lokal manusia Dayak yang menyingkap makna 00-daftarisi.indd 4 11/16/2013 9:33:21 AM

5 Pengantar Redaksi v spiritual gawai dan sistem (budaya) berladang berpindah-pindah yang dilakukan suku Dayak tradisional yang mencuatkan kearifan lokal dan keselarasan dengan alam dengan cara tidak merusak alam dan lingkungan hidup (tulisan R. Masri Sareb Putra), dan (4) Demokrasi dan Kekuasaan dalam Pandangan Hidup Orang Jawa yang menggarisbawahi pentingnya sejumlah konsep kunci orang Jawa berikut ini seperti primbon, olah rasa, wahyu ratu dan wangsit, tapa pepe, gentho dan balai desa (tulisan Aryaning Arya Kresna). Dua artikel setelahnya berbicara tentang metode pengajaran di tingkat Perguruan Tinggi. Hendar Putranto membahas soal perlunya mengembangkan dan memperkaya metode pengajaran Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan sebagai mata kuliah wajib di Perguruan Tinggi. Penggunaan metode partisipatoris berbasis imajinasi rekonstruktif---terinspirasi pemikiran Giambattista Vico tentang reconstructive fantasia dalam Nuova Scienza--- guna memahami pengetahuan sejarah supaya lebih aktual dan relevan (misalnya: tentang kontroversi perumusan Naskah Pancasila, tentang Ideologi Pancasila) merupakan usulan yang pantas dicoba untuk melengkapi model Taksonomi Bloom yang berfokus pada pengembangan dimensi kognitif, afektif dan motorik siswa didik. Artikel yang ditulis Oscar Jayanagara membahas tentang videografi sebagai ilmu sekaligus sarana pembelajaran secara mendetil berbasiskan pengalaman penulis yang sudah teruji di lapangan. Dengan telaah atas video Jalan Sesama dan Sesame Street, Oscar memberikan bukti nyata bagaimana videografi tidak hanya mampu meraih target audiens penayangan di layar kaca secara signifikan namun juga menjadi cetak biru dari videografi sebagai sarana pembelajaran baik di tingkat dasar maupun lanjut. Artikel berjudul Does Education Empower the Indonesian Women? yang ditulis Arif Rohman dilatarbelakangi sejarah kampanye aktivis perempuan melawan budaya patriarki di era 1960-an. Kampanye yang bertujuan untuk mencapai pemenuhan hakhak perempuan dalam aspek hukum, politik dan sosial ini bergayung-sambut dalam konteks keindonesiaan kini. Dengan menggunakan budaya Jawa sebagai kasus, artikel ini mendiskusikan kemungkinan positif di mana pendidikan berdampak terhadap pemberdayaan perempuan sekaligus identifikasi atas faktor-faktor yang menghambat pendidikan pemberdayaan perempuan di Indonesia. Jurnal Ultima Humaniora ditutup dengan sebuah tulisan Arif Susanto mengenai resensi buku baru (terbitan 2012) karya Michael J. Sandel yang berjudul What Money Can t Buy (The Moral Limits of Markets). Buku ini membahas kecenderungan totalisasi nalar pasar yang menempatkan segalanya sebagai komoditas. Totalisasi nalar pasar ini digugat Sandel yang lalu memperkenalkan pertimbangan moral pada apa yang diperjual-belikan di mana transaksi bukan semata persoalan utilisasi secara maksimal segi keuntungan dan manfaat, melainkan juga soal keadilan dan kepatutan moral. Hanya dengan memasukkan pertimbangan moral dan keadilanlah kita mampu menghindar dari sergapan masyarakat pasar, yang berupaya menelan seluruh relasi sosial dalam kemasan pasar. Kencangkan ikat pinggang nalar Anda agar dapat (lebih) menikmati sajian artikel yang berbobot dalam Jurnal Ultima Humaniora edisi kedua ini. Tabik! 00-daftarisi.indd 5 11/16/2013 9:33:21 AM

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7 Jurnal Ultima Humaniora, September 2013, hal 1-14 ISSN Vol. I, Nomor 2 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems QUSTHAN FIRDAUS Lecturer on Citizenship, Creative and Critical Thinking Course Universitas Multimedia Nusantara Scientia Garden, Jl. Boulevard Gading Serpong Tangerang Banten Telepon: (021) Surel: Diterima: 21 Agustus 2013 Disetujui: 9 September 2013 ABSTRAK Local wisdom biasanya diterima begitu saja oleh sebagian orang Indonesia sebagai hal yang jelas dan jernih. Orang secara semena-mena mengarahkannya pada berbagai macam objek dan mengaburkan perbedaan antara objek kongkret dengan objek abstrak. Artikel ini berusaha memetakan local wisdom sebagai dirinya sendiri. Persoalan pemetaan local wisdom boleh jadi rancu khususnya ketika kita akan (1) memaknainya dengan baik; (2) membedakannya sebagai types atau tokens; (3) menanganinya sebagai properti; (4) mengapropriasinya; dan (5) menjustifikasinya. Artikel ini akan mendiskusikan kelima persoalan tersebut. Setelah kita mendiskusikannya, maka kearifan lokal akan dipahami secara lebih baik apabila orang Indonesia memahaminya sebagai local thoughts ketimbang local wisdom. Yang-sebelumnya mengimplikasikan koherensi sementara yang-berikutnya mengimplikasikan inkoherensi. Artikel ini membangun argumen bahwa ekspresi local wisdom sebaiknya diakhiri karena ia tidak jernih. Jika para pendukungnya bersikeras untuk mengekspresikannya dalam bahasa Inggris, maka artikel ini mengusulkan local thoughts, selama kita memerhatikan beberapa justifikasi yang memadai. Ringkasnya, local wisdom nampaknya rapuh sementara local thoughts tentu saja kokoh. Keywords: local wisdom, local thoughts, type-token, property, appropriation, justifications. Prologue Local wisdom is absurd. It is absurd because it does not seem local in and of itself. Its proponents are prone to excessively use the expression local wisdom instead of kearifan lokal. Using the previous (the expression of local wisdom ) shades the meaning of the latter ( kearifan lokal ) as I will discuss below. Had those proponents be consistent, they would use the expression kearifan lokal. There might be a huge gap between the concept of human being in the East and the West, but it does not imply that there is no coherency at all between those conceptions. It is possible that there are some components which might be 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:27 AM

8 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 111 coherent, given that there are some mutual interactions since the ancient times between the East and the West. The local wisdom seems to be put at stake in the discourse of humanities in Indonesia. On the one hand, some thinkers might conceive that it is fascinating while, on the other hand, others might reckon that it is outlandish. Interestingly, some proponents of local wisdom could not offer a clear and distinctive description of what the local wisdom is. In contrast, some opponents of local wisdom always enjoy and exploit such a mess for totally rejecting it instead of delivering some constructive contributions. Contributions, however, would not be sufficiently occurred whenever government does not put the local wisdom as a compulsory subject in humanities. Had the so called local wisdom were a challenging object in the discourse of humanities in Indonesia, then it would be one, among others, main topic in such discourse. Additionally, it might be one topic in some subjects such as the Civic (Kewarganegaraan) course and the Pancasila course such as Gotong Royong or Tepa Slira though it might still be drawn by other issues. This paper aims to offer an investigation of what the so called local wisdom is. Besides, it strives to explore whether or not there is another alternative to the expression of local wisdom. Therefore, this article would like to discuss a question: how do we map out the so called local wisdom in and of itself? In order to map local wisdom out, this article would discuss its meaning, scope, the type-token distinction, the issue of property and appropriation. Some justifications and contra-justifications of local wisdom will also be discussed. Meanings Conflating two different meanings into a word might imply a vagueness. Thereby, exploring the meanings of some linked words, either in Bahasa Indonesia or other foreign languages, and its implications would be the interest of this section. The word arif and kearifan are arbitrarily translated by most Indonesians as wisdom and, indeed, some of them might be reluctant to use another word such as thoughts. Indeed, wisdom contains an accumulation of knowledge throughout history while, in contrast, a thought consists of the organized beliefs either individually or collectively. On the one hand, an accumulation of knowledge might be inconsistent across time. For example, the words perempuan and wanita interchange its sentiment across history. On the one hand, perempuan implies a positive sentiment in the past due to a semantic interpretation: per-empu-an or the master whom we could learn from. Yet, it currently implies a negative sentiment perhaps for no reason. On the other hand, wanita implies a negative sentiment in the past but it implies a positive sentiment nowadays simply because its auditory sensation. Wanita sounds better on most Indonesians nowadays, compared to its sound in the past. In short, those different meanings show us that an accumulation of knowledge might be inconsistent across history. Thereby, re-examining those two meanings, to wit arif and kearifan, would hopefully overcome some rejections to the notion of kearifan lokal. Moreover, it is better to comprehend kearifan lokal as pemikiran lokal or the local thoughts. Additionally, the local thoughts and the local wisdom would be used interchangeably throughout this article, with which depend on the context and purpose. Some linguists, such as Shadily and Echols, suggest some words such as capable, skillful, clever, wise, and learned as the synonyms of the word arif in Bahasa Indonesia. Moreover, they suggest some 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

9 112 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems Vol I, 2013 words such as ability, wisdom, and learning, as the synonyms of the word kearifan in Bahasa Indonesia. Here, we should recheck whether or not such equalizing is sufficient. Therefore, we need to check the meanings of arif, kearifan, and wisdom within its own languages. Arif in Bahasa Indonesia means, more or less, having knowledge, be smart and intelligent, and be wise. Those meanings seem to be attached to some well educated persons. If those educated persons do some moron actions, then such meanings might be detached from his personality or merely disappeared from him. Yet, some Indonesians might conceive that you do not need to have access to the high quality education in order to be arif. Indeed, you could be arif by learning everything that you face in daily life or by doing some meditations for a long time. Consequently, having knowledge does not mean that you ought to go to schools and universities for decades but simply by, let us say, exercising some non-academic activities. Indeed, they usually reckon that some rural individuals are relatively more arif, compared to some urban people because the previous copes well with the environment and neighborhood (though perhaps be tacky) while the latter are prone to be egoistic (though be modern). Additionally, kearifan is merely another noun of arif and it also constitutes the notion of kearifan lokal. Nevertheless, knowledge is not a mere information which we could achieve either in some traditional markets or some farmings. Indeed, knowledge is the systematic information which is achieved by conducting some research and trainings. Therefore, knowledge provides an opportunity for individuals to be wise though they could not always be wise. For example, a professor in philosophy of moral does not always be wise, given that he has all necessary knowledge which underpin him to be wise. Indeed, ethicists do not act more ethically compared to laymen according to a study conducted by Schwitzgebel. He said: If professors have an obligation to respond to s from students, then arguably they also have a further obligation to track whether or not they are meeting the first obligation, so that if they are not meeting the first obligation they can take corrective measures, the philosophers wrote. If this is correct, then the present study offers not just one measure of morality, responsiveness, but two: responsiveness and meeting one s moral obligation not to be deluded about one s level of responsiveness. Professors remain far short of ideal by either measure, ethicists no less so than others (Miller, 2013). However, an ethicist would easily rebut such finding by saying that there is no such duty to response an from a student. Suppose that replying the students s is a part of the positive duty, then an ethicist might simply deny that there is no such thing called as the positive duty. Indeed, the notion of positive duty is vague because there is no just and equal limits over its practices. Moreover, the burden of positive duty outweighs our capacity to deliver it. If we ought to assist others based on our capacity, then what is the limit? If we ought to assist others based on our priority, then we would be discriminative because we ought to prioritize some individuals based on family lines, faiths, ethnics, races, nationalities and so on at the expense of others misery. Had we be compelled to assist others, then we would do it not because the existence of positive duties but because the failure to deliver it would harm ourselves painstakingly. In general, rights imply duties but not otherwise. In contrast, our education pervasively indoctrinates that duties imply rights. It is obviously manifested on 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

10 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 113 the saying KAM dan HAM (the human duties and the human rights) or some compelling words such as we ought to fulfill our obligations before taking our rights. However, we have the right not to assist others and we might refuse to help them for some adequate reasons. Consequently, an ethicist does not have any positive duty which compel him to reply his students s. Thereby, being wise requires knowledge, education and trainings in schools and universities though those things would not guarantee one to be wise. Those things simply provide some opportunities for people to be wise. Moreover, it is particularly different between being wise and being patient or calm in responding problems. Soeharto, for instance, did enjoy the elementary school and some military trainings but we could not say that he was a wise person based on the fact that he was a very calm person. Moreover, Habibie did enjoy the German higher education but we could not conceive that he is a wise individual simply by the fact that he is a professor. Moreover, we need to examine their acts (when facing some difficult problems) and their justifications (when taking indispensable decisions) whether or not based on the ethical considerations. In short, there is a line between having knowledge and being wise and each person has some personal tendencies whether or not to cross the line. They could not be morally forced by anyone to be wise because they might prefer to be unwise. Additionally, there is a wide gap between the notion of arif and kearifan with the notion of wisdom especially in the way people use it in ordinary life. Having discussed the meanings of local wisdom and its implications, we would seek the scope of local wisdom. Scope This section will describe the scope of local wisdom because the failure to do it might imply some arbitrary denotations. The notion of local wisdom implies another notion such as the universal wisdom or the global wisdom. Moreover, one might argue for a spectrum of wisdom such as the regional wisdom and the national wisdom. If a proponent of local wisdom rejected such spectrum, then they would be inconsistent when establishing the notion of local wisdom. Additionally, if a proponent of local wisdom accepted such spectrum, then the scope of local wisdom is limited by a specific locality. Insofar as people conceive the local wisdom as anything which embeds in Indonesia, then these words would be used arbitrarily either by its proponents or opponents. Local wisdom might refer to all values, all traditional dances, all traditional weapons, all myths, all mystical experience, all beliefs, all holy places, all traditional views, and so on. In other words, the so called local wisdom refers to knowledge, values, mysticism, things, places, and ways of living. Had the notion of local wisdom were coherent, then we should ask: what is the universal wisdom or the global wisdom? Is there anything which could be taken for granted by seven billion people on this planet as the so called universal or global wisdom? Yet, the notion of universal or global wisdom is unfortunately disregarded by the proponents of local wisdom. On the one hand, some of them conceive the universal wisdom as all western stuffs while, on the other hand, others reckon it as humanity, ethics, and probably religions. The scope of local wisdom might be overlap with the scope of local thoughts over something. Even though they overlap one another, it does not affect our suggestion to shift the expression of local wisdom with the local thoughts. The latter still be able to reflect a clear and distinctive denotation instead of the previous. For instance, 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

11 114 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems Vol I, 2013 the Minangkabaunese matriarchy, the Sardinian matriarchy, the Mosuo matriarchy, the Berbers matriarchy and the Tuareg matriarchy could be perceived as the local wisdom in their own areas. Yet, why does the Minangkabaunese matriarchy be so typical and then we should regard it as the Minangkabaunese local wisdom instead of the Minangkabaunese local thoughts of matriarchy? Perhaps, there might be no attractive reason for it. Proponents of local wisdom merely express it as it is. They take it for granted that such expression is correct in English though it is not the case. Indeed, if there is no thought, then there would be no wisdom. Moreover, the notion of petikan sawah in Minangkabau and the notion of kibbutz in the modern Israel could not be taken as the local wisdom because both are based on the thought of joint ownership of farming. It means that all individuals share the same moral claims and stock over the farm. Yet, why do we bother to recognize those two things as the local wisdom instead of the local thoughts regarding the idea of joint ownership of farming? Thereby, establishing the notion of local thoughts is necessary for mapping the problems accurately. Here, we propose that the scope of local wisdom is limited on the scope of local thoughts. There are some reasons for it. Firstly, the expression of local wisdom is particularly used by Indonesians. Secondly, wisdom is merely wisdom. It does not need the sense of locality though there is a sense of context such as the Chinese wisdom. Here, we distinguish between the notion of locality and context because the previous only deals with the geographical area while the latter includes a discourse and an interpretation, where both go beyond the geographical area. Thirdly, the notion of thoughts would hopefully clear up the mess of local wisdom, especially in the sense of its flexible way of generating its scope. Fourthly, the notion of wisdom is randomly used by most Indonesians as the type and token objects. Such would not overcome the problems as we will discuss below. Have we discussed the scope of local wisdom, we should discuss further a specific distinction of local wisdom, to wit, the type-token distinction. Type-Token Here, I will discuss the necessity of distinguishing objects as the types and the tokens because most Indonesians ambiguously denote the local wisdom into the type objects and the token objects. Consequently, the notion of kearifan lokal would be used arbitrarily by its proponents. On the one hand, a type object is immaterial object which usually commands a token object. For instance, Einstein s formula (E = m x c2) measures the flow of energy. Under the regime of intellectual property, such type objects are not protected by the intellectual property law but its derivations are. Therefore, a scientist does not have to pay some royalty to Einstein though his or her invention takes benefit from the law. Had the regime of intellectual property were impartial, then it should protect the Einstein law as well. On the other hand, a token object is material object which does not always be commanded by a type object. Some token objects are mere material objects such as land, stones, and water. In other words, token objects take some physical features. The way people express the notion of local wisdom reflects that there is no typetoken distinction. Some people put some token objects -- such as keris -- as a local wisdom. In contrast, others conceive that local wisdom is only about what we call above as the type object. In other words, they be- 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

12 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 115 lieve that the notion of local wisdom does not take any physical feature. Pancasila, for example, is part of the local wisdom though some opponents might reckon that Pancasila is not so local because it contains some non-local entities such as God, humanities, and the deliberative democracy. They -- who believe that the local wisdom has some physical features -- are prone to put it into the regime of intellectual property because they are worry that it would be stole by some foreign countries. This effort would imply a significant problem because the way they define what a local wisdom is overlaps with the regime of intellectual property. A local wisdom and such regime are not compatible one another because not all local wisdom could be registered into such regime. Moreover, local wisdom is a unique and special expression which is used by Indonesians but not necessarily by most English native speakers. For the latter, wisdom is mere wisdom. Although there are some specific expression such as the Chinese wisdom, they do not express it as the local wisdom of China or the Chinese local wisdom. Such expression is similar with another one viz., free sex. With all respects to some Indonesians who strive to use English words, they need to know that there is no such expression in most English speaking countries because sex is done by consensus. A non-consensual sex is a rape. Therefore, having a sex is not free at all. Neither free in the sense of beer, nor free in the sense of speech. Having discussed the inappropriate English expressions, we should examine another case of the way people express local wisdom. Selu Margaretha, a member of Steering Committee of Wayang Goes to Campus arbitrarily believes that wayang is a part of local wisdom. Such is different with some values which are inherent in wayang itself. Margaretha says: Masih perlukah wayang bagi orang Indonesia, jawabannya memang tak mudah. Nyatanya jual karcis (grup band) Noah dalam tempo beberapa detik saja habis. Super junior sebentar saja habis. Ada apa dengan masyarakat kita sekarang ini? Kenapa local wisdom dihilangkan? Does wayang still be necessary for Indonesians? The answer is obviously not easy. In fact, Noah s (the music group) tickets could be sold out in a few seconds. So does the Super Junior. What does happen with our society nowadays? Why does the local wisdom be vanished? (Margaretha in Virdhani, 2013). Margaretha might claim that wayang is a part of local wisdom. Yet, how does she justify such claim? Do not the story of Mahabarata and Ramayana come from India? If she insists to put wayang as a local wisdom, then the one and only part which really local is the story of Empat Punakawan (Bagong, Petruk, Gareng, and Semar) because there are no such figures in the Indian Mahabarata. Wayang is not the Javanese local wisdom per se. Indeed, the notion of wisdom in wayang might be some values within the story and values are not the token objects. Such story might be originally came from India or, otherwise, be adjusted with the context of Hindhunese Java and Islam. Therefore, wayang itself is not a local wisdom because first of all, it is not genuinely local and, secondly, a wisdom is not a token object. An interesting account of local wisdom is its manifestation on mysticism. Some Indonesians arbitrarily conceive mysticism as a part of local wisdom like the practice of santet, the belief to the existence of Nyai Roro Kidul, or the practice of cooking Sayur Lodeh for avoiding the natural disaster. Indeed, they have a significant different meaning over the word mistisisme in Bahasa Indonesia which means something which could not be comprehended by logic 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

13 116 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems Vol I, 2013 and have something to do with ghosts or the supernatural power such as santet, Nyai Roro Kidul and Sayur Lodeh. In contrast, the word mysticism in English means the unification with God and the spiritual apprehension such as the practice of Sufi. Consequently, putting the practice of Sufi as a part of mistisisme in Bahasa Indonesia would be considered by most Indonesians as false while, in fact, putting it as a part of mysticism in English would be correct. Furthermore, Scharfstein conceives that there are eleven quintessence of the mystic state viz., (1) sameness, (2) separation, (3) uniqueness, (4) inclusion, (5) the familiar strangeness or the strange familiarity, (6) depletion, (7) aggression, (8) conscience, (9) mirror-reversal, (10) humor, and (11) reality (Scharfstein, 1973: ). Among those eleven essences, it is humor which seem to be inconsistent with mysticism. Yet, Scharfstein explains further that mysticism and humor share the same aim but the ways they achieve it are done through different paths. On the one hand, humorous individuals strive to put their external world as the source of pleasure. On the other hand, mystic individuals, including Sufis, strive to escape from such world (Scharfstein, 1973: 166-7). Thereby, cooking Sayur Lodeh does not assist people neither to escape from the natural disaster nor transforming the potential disaster into pleasure. Praising Nyai Roro Kidul does not assist people neither to transform the high wave in Parangtritis beach into pleasure because fishermen could not sail nor to escape from the high wave. Doing santet does not help people neither to transform their hostility into pleasure -- but merely doing revenge -- nor escaping their hostility. Therefore, we cannot put mysticism as a part of the so called local wisdom because there is a wide gap of meaning between mysticism in English and mistisisme in Bahasa Indonesia and conflating their different elements would imply a further mess. Properties In this section, I will discuss local wisdom in the sense of property because some Indonesians think that, on the one hand, wisdom equals properties and, on the other hand, thoughts equal properties; then a question appears here: Could wisdom be property? Suppose that the answer is positive. Thus, I should ask further: by what right those Indonesians claim the first principle of Pancasila or the second principle as their property? Do not the descendants of Abraham deserve the right for appropriating monotheism as their property compared to Indonesians? Therefore, the answer is negative because wisdom contains very different structure compared to property. On the one hand, the structure of wisdom does not have to be coherent because it is merely the accumulation of knowledge through history. On the other hand, the structure of property supposes to be coherent because it deals with one s possession over the concrete and abstract objects. Such possession requires the moral and legal entitlement. Had property were incoherent in and of itself, then there might be a dispute between the moral entitlement against the legal entitlement. Moreover, the notion of spoil is a consequence of the Lockean proviso which compels us to left enough and as good for others of the unowned material objects that we appropriate with. In other words, not all type objects could be owned by us. Wisdom indeed illuminates us. Forcing wisdom to be property means that we bar its capacity to enlighten us or, at least, we are restricted by some law to access the wisdom. In contrast, property deals with the moral and legal rights over objects. In short, such rights imply exclusion. 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

14 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 117 Wisdom is not a property because it is an accumulation of knowledge. As an accumulation, one might claim a certain knowledge as his property. The intellectual property law, for example, provides a legal structure for protecting such claim. Nevertheless, one cannot appropriate a certain aggregation of knowledge as his own property because, by doing so, he obviously steals others works. Although there are some type objects which are property as well -- such as trade secrets -- it does not morally mean wisdom could be registered into the regime of intellectual property. If there is a country which allows registration of wisdom into its intellectual property law, then it should provide a moral argument for it. On the contrary, a moral dispute might still happen. The so called Kopitiam, for example, ridiculously shocks us since the Medan Administrative Court justify a previous registration in Kopitiam is a portmanteau of kopi (coffee in Malay) and tiam (a stall or a shop in Hokkien Chinese). It might also mean an aggregation of knowledge which constitutes the identity and legacy of Peranakan Cina (Chinese who migrated overseas especially to the South East Asia). The court took a decision on a dispute between Abdul Alek Soelystio against Paimin Halim in The previous is the Jakartabased Kopitiam who registered the trademark in 1996 while the latter is the Medanbased Kok Tong Kopitiam. In contrast, a similar dispute happens in Singapore but the government rejects the request. Indeed, Bondan Winarno interestingly says: Kopitiam are not our creation. The name of Kopitiam does not belong to us, but belongs to generations before us...it is not a brand but a signature of culinary culture as well as social assimilation (Winarno in Rakhmawati, 2012). It means that Winarno admits ownership does not always bestow over generations for some reasons such as the regime of intellectual property did not exist in the past or the obscurity of intellectual property. The regime of intellectual property incorporates some thoughts as a part of property. It modifies some thoughts into a commercial property such as some taglines or messages. For example, the tag-line rasa might be taken from a maxim orang Jawa nggone rasa [the Javanese people are the source of a combination of feelings and senses] while others are dealing with the essence of life such as urip iku mung mampir ngombe [life is just about halting for drinking]; and the notion of soul like ajining jiwa dumunung ana ing busana [the power of soul is formed by its appearance]). Spirits (most Jogjanese honor Nyi Roro Kidul) are also taken by some proponents as an inherent component of local wisdom. They honor spirits and therefore they take it for granted as the local wisdom. The failure to honor spirits might imply a bad thing such as be cursed by spirits or at least be unlucky during a certain period of time. Spirit might be exist in the sense that an individual could be exist in a disembodied form. A defense of spirit itself is not only provided by the Eastern thinkers but also by the Western thinker. For instance, Ayer regards the notion of spirit is not meaningless and it is intelligible in the world of fantasy though. Ayer does not reject the notion of spirit because it might provide the continuity of memory in and of an individual and shape the basis for the reincarnation as is shown by his example of a person who claims that himself is the reincarnation of Julius Caesar, given that he could expose some necessary information which are only known by some elites in the past (Ayer, 1990: 193-4). 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

15 118 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems Vol I, 2013 Appropriation Having discussed the local wisdom in the sense of property, I need to explore the process of appropriation in order to figure out the process of appropriation itself. Such exploration might imply to a rejection that wisdom is a property. In contrast, ignoring such process might imply the unjust appropriation and such unjustified appropriation might be considered as stealing. If most Indonesians resist some practices -- where some foreign companies appropriate the local thoughts as their business commodities (such as tag-lines or trade marks) -- then such resistance would be hardly done because market always compels to annex it over and over. Meanwhile some foreign companies appropriate other local thoughts, the locals might have no chance to capitalize the local thoughts. Indeed, if competitors use the same local thoughts for their business, then consumers would spontaneously reckon that they are not creative nor unique. Here, the notion of creative and unique should be distinguished from the notion of asal beda (be arbitrarily different). The previous requires some convincing arguments for potential consumers whether or not to buy the product while the latter merely implies the urgency for making differences, no matter plausible or implausible it is. Moreover, a challenging problem with the notion of local wisdom is its ambition to claim that its material objects are owned by some local communities and, consequently, others could not utilize it. Another question with the issue of appropriation is: by what right that current individuals appropriate the so called local wisdom as their property? Locke provides the mixing labor theory which says that one could appropriate the unowned objects if he mixes his labor with it. Therefore, the notion of labor is necessary here. Yet, such mixing process does not always imply that he be able to appropriate the unowned objects. Nozick, for instance, proposes the example of pouring a tomato juice into the sea. He shows that pouring the tomato juice into the sea does not imply that we own the sea or some part of the juice which is poured by the juice. He believes that the activity of pouring the juice is similar with the activity of laboring (Nozick, 1974: 175). However, there is a difference between Locke s argument and Nozick s argument. The previous deals with mixing our labor with the tomato while the latter deals with mixing the result of our labor with the sea. Thereby, appropriating objects does not always deal with mixing our labor but also inheriting objects from our ancestors justly. A Nozickian argument would suggest that insofar as the initial acquisition is fair, then the transfer process should be fair too. Yet, we do not really know, for sure, whether or not the initial production of the objects of local wisdom is originally made by the ancient individuals in Nusantara. Indeed, we do not know whether the initial production of local wisdom is similar with the Locke s example of making a tomato juice or be the same with the Nozick s counter example of pouring a tomato juice to the sea. Both are look-alike but they are not identical. In short, we cannot morally appropriate the local wisdom simply based on the fact that it bestows to some contemporary Indonesians. Suppose there is an argument which morally justifies our appropriation to the local wisdom. Thus, we should ask: would appropriating the local wisdom worsen the locals? Having discussed that I limit the scope of local wisdom into the local 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

16 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 119 thoughts, then I could say that appropriating it would not worsen the locals. 1 For example, had Malaysians held up that sangkan paraning dumadi as their ways of living, then it would not worsen the Javanese individuals and would not spoil the Javanese thoughts. Similarly, the Aristotelian thoughts are not spoiled by the Javanese individuals when Notonagoro claims that the causa prima is similar with the sangkan paraning dumadi. Had there were a Malaysia based company register the Garuda Pancasila as their trade mark, then we might take a legal action in order to prevent it. Such is similar with an American based surfing company named 662 MOB (www.662bodyboardshop.com) which uses the symbol of PDI Perjuangan. Even though PDI Perjuangan used it since 1998 while the 662 MOB is established in 2004, it does not mean that the party has to take a legal action against the company. If that is the case, then we do not need to, on the one hand, worry that our local thoughts would be stolen as well as we do not need to, on the other hand, worry to cautiously absorb some foreign thoughts. Another interesting example is Socrates elenchus. It literally means the cross-examination, with which be used dialectically by Socrates in order to evoke truths and examining the consistency of others opinions. Socrates finds out that laymen usually denote the meaning of something merely to its practical example. This habit implies a reduction of the comprehensive meaning. Rather, Socrates wishes to explore the common quality of all issues which he investigate of (cf., Blackburn, 1994: 116; Collinson, 1987: 15-6). Most philosophers acknowledge elenchus as a significant contribution made by Socrates. Therefore, they reckon elenchus is a part of Socrates thought but not Socrates wisdom. Moreover, the Oracle at Delphi -- a priestess and a messenger of Apollo -- regards that no living person outweighs Socrates in the sense of having wisdom at the time of King Pericles. Yet, Socrates himself does not buy that opinion and he always practices elenchus for the sake of pursuing truth over what he investigates of. Had proponents of local wisdom were consistent, then they should consider elenchus as the local wisdom of ancient and contemporary Greeks. Consequently, others may not appropriate it as well as not to utilize it. Nevertheless, proponents would be inconsistent because they are prone to put elenchus as Socrates thoughts instead of the Greek local wisdom. They simply do not care with the notion of foreign local wisdom though such is merely a consequence of their insistence over the expression of local wisdom. Should the foreign thoughts be useful, they would absorb it blatantly until they dismiss its origins. In short, the issue of appropriation would be vague if proponents of local wisdom insist to express local wisdom instead of local thoughts. Given that we agree to express it as local thoughts, then there are some ways in academic activities to justly take benefits from some foreign ideas. Justification and Contra-justification Having discussed the issue of appropriation, I would examine justifications and contra-justifications to the local wisdom 1 Such point is based on a presumption that thoughts cannot be spoiled by others. Thoughts cannot be scarce although the lack of criticism and creativity might imply no innovations. Moreover, it develops in such a way through the academic activities and the social interactions. Insofar as there are academic activities and the social interactions, then thoughts would always develop. 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:28 AM

17 120 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems Vol I, 2013 and the local thoughts. Therefore, both the consequentialist 2 and the deontological 3 approaches are discussed in this section. In the light of deontological approach, a challenging contra-justification against the local wisdom is the issue of duty. What sort of duties that we have over the local wisdom? Do we really have a duty to preserve it? If we do, then what sort of rights which imply the obligation to preserve the local wisdom? Those are questions which should be replied by proponents of local wisdom, given that they would like to argue that we all have obligations to preserve and protect it. The fact that we were born as Indonesians does not oblige all of us to preserve and to protect the local wisdom. Here, there is a wide gap between the natural fact that we were born as Indonesians and the social obligations to preserve and protect it. Now, this article suggests that we do not have any positive duty to preserve neither the local wisdom nor the local thoughts because we do not have any right over it. Yet, we might have a negative duty over the results of thoughts. At least, we have the negative duty for not stealing it from the owners. Moreover, an ownership right over the results of thoughts is bestowed to the descendants of its thinkers. If we do not have a sufficient record over the descendants -- or those thinkers do not procreate -- then such right might belong to the property of commoners, such as the ownership right over Socrates thoughts and wisdom which are well recorded within Plato s works or some stupas in museum. At this stage, we might have a positive duty to preserve -- for example Borobudur as a result of thought of the Syailendra dynasty -- but such preservation is merely an implication of our right to own it commonly. Yet, we do not take benefits from such right directly as well as we do not deliver our positive duty directly because the state or the government or some appointed organizations would act on behalf of us. Consequently, our common ownership does not confer everyone an appropriate access equally. Only leaders and some political elites have more access compared to laymen and beggars. Another challenging contra-justification against the local wisdom is the issue of incoherency. It deals with the nature of local wisdom either as a concept or as two technical words. Suppose that the notion of local wisdom refers to all things which are embedded in a specific area such as Indonesia. Then, local wisdom is incoherent in and of itself because all those things are not compatible one another. Some proponents arbitrarily regard the traditional dances as a part of local wisdom but they are not compatible with, for example, the traditional weapons though there might be some traditional dances which utilize weapons. In contrast, suppose that the local wisdom refers to a specific types or tokens which are genuinely discovered by some Indonesians such as Pancasila. Then, we should recognize what the concept of Pancasila is. Some proponents of Pancasila conceive its concept is the combination of Tuhan-manusiasatu-rakyat-adil [God-human-one-folks-justice]. It means that there is a cohesive unity between the existence of God and human 2 It means an ethical approach which emphasizes on the consequences of an action. By those consequences, one might decide whether or not to take some available actions. Therefore, a bad action could be justified by its good consequences such as white lies, killing the innocent by standards in war or killing for the sake of self-defense. 3 It means an ethical approach which emphasizes on the nature of an action. Therefore, one should always conduct the good actions though it might cost him painstakingly such as putting children to get some seats in a lifeboat though it costs his or her life because he or she has no seats and might be drowned. 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:29 AM

18 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 121 being which implies justice for people in Indonesia. Excluding the existence of God would imply that there would be no justice in Indonesia 4 because God is the source of everything, including the inspiration for pursuing justice. Nevertheless, Indonesia itself is not based on a religion or some religions because Pancasila does not oblige us to put a religion or some religions as the foundation of Indonesia. Notonagoro justifies such unity based on three different notions of being, to wit, (1) being in reality or in itself, (2) being in minds, and (3) being in probabilities. Indeed, he believes that such unity is part of the being in reality. He notes:...maka di antara tiga macam ada tidak dapat lain yang tepat daripada ada dalam objektifanya [sic]. Jadi, Tuhan, manusia, satu, rakyat, dan adil itu ada dalam realita kenyataan yang sesungguhnya, terlepas dari pengetahuan, rasa, kehendak, kepercayaan, anggapan, kesadaran, dan angan-angan orang. Ada tidaknya segala sesuatu itu pada orang, pada orang Indonesia, sama sekali tidak mempengaruhnya sedikitpun [...so among three kinds of being, there is no more accurate [being] instead of being in its own objective. Therefore, God, human, one, folks, and justice are being in reality, with which be disconnected from knowledge, taste, wills, faiths, presumptions, consciousness, and individuals imaginations. Whether or not they be exist in individuals, especially Indonesians, do not matter at all.] (Notonagoro, 1995: 64). In other words, Notonagoro believes that Pancasila still be exist in reality though some Indonesians are atheists or agnostics. The state should not force its citizens to believe in God because it would overstep the first principle of Pancasila viz., the belief in God. God indeed never forces individuals to believe in him, therefore the state should not force its citizens to worship God. Notonagoro furthermore justifies the existence of God by the Aristotelian causa prima where everything has the primary cause, viz., God. Interestingly, he compares the causa prima with the Javanese saying sangkan paraning dumadi which means the origin and the direction or the destination over everything which happens (Notonagoro, 1995: 79). Here, one might ask: if the notion of Aristotelian causa prima is similar or be consistent with the notion of sangkan paraning dumadi, then we ought to ask whether or not the latter is originally a local wisdom instead of a universal wisdom. Had it were a local wisdom, then Notonagoro would explain further about its differentiation with the Aristotelian causa prima. Yet, Notonagoro merely puts a real example of the causa prima and ignoring its compatibility with the sangkan paraning dumadi. Had it were a universal wisdom, then the sangkan paraning dumadi would be acknowledged by not only the Javanese but also other people. In contrast, we might reckon that the sangkan paraning dumadi is merely a local manifestation of the Aristotelian causa prima which happens through centuries. Such problem could be solved by changing the notion of local wisdom with the local thoughts. Nevertheless, there might be some differences as well as some similarities. Had Aristotle knew that Notonagoro compare the causa prima with the sangkan paraning dumadi, then Aristotle might put some charge to all Javanese individuals who take some benefits from his intellectual work. In contrast, Aristotle would not put some charge if we put the sangkan paraning 4 Although there are a lot of well-developed countries which ignore God but they are still able to deliver justice to their citizens. 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:29 AM

19 122 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems Vol I, 2013 dumadi as a local thought which is inspired by the Aristotelian causa prima, provided that we give a credit to Aristotle. In the light of consequentialist approach, a challenging problem to the notion of local wisdom is put in the insistence of some proponents to express it in English words because it blurs its intention to represent the notion of kearifan lokal as I have discussed in section 1. Yet, the question is: does such blur outweigh its previous intention to establish kearifan lokal? Suppose the answer is no. Thus, local wisdom still attracts more rejections because of its vague expression and its unintentional tendency to be non-local by preferring local wisdom instead of kearifan lokal. In contrast, the answer seems to be yes because, so far, a linguistic mess implies the chaos in meaning. Moreover, we have no common understanding over what the kearifan lokal is. Proponents and opponents exhaustively argue about their supports or rejections to the local wisdom. Should the notion of local wisdom imply the debate to be unfruitful, then it is in our hands to be back to the notion of kearifan lokal. For those who insist to express it in English, this article provides some arguments to shift it into the local thoughts. Conclusion A fancy way to express kearifan lokal as the local wisdom implies a mess and obscurity. Meanwhile the notion of kearifan lokal is still messy in Bahasa Indonesia, some proponents of it hastily express it as the local wisdom. Indeed, the meaning of arif and kearifan is largely different with the meaning of wisdom as I have discussed in section 1 ( Meanings ). Such difference compels us to investigate further what the scope of local wisdom is and its potential overlap with the scope of local thoughts. Therefore, I suggest in section 2 ( Scope ) to limit the notion of local wisdom on the scope of local thoughts because wisdom does not contain the sense of locality but does the context. In section 3 ( Type-token ), I distinguish the notion of type objects and token objects in order to show the mess of local wisdom which often tip toe between those two objects. The obscurity of local wisdom gets worse when some proponents strive to register it under the intellectual property law. On the one hand, wisdom is merely wisdom. On the other hand, thoughts might be considered as property under the intellectual property law, regardless some necessary criticism against it as I have discussed in section 4 ( Properties ). Section 5 ( Appropriation ) deals with some worries about the appropriation which is done by some foreign power. Here, I argue those worries are unnecessary regarding the fact that wisdom and thoughts could not be spoiled and would not worsen the locals. Moreover, I develop some justifications and contrajustifications to the local wisdom and the local thoughts with which I apply the consequentialist and deontological approaches in section 6 ( Justification and Contra-justification ). All in all, I suggest to put an end to the expression of local wisdom because it is awfully messy. If proponents insist to express it in English, then this article proposes the local thoughts. In short, the local wisdom seems to be frail while the local thoughts is obviously robust. *** * I would like to thank the referees of this journal and Arya Kresna for his invaluable comment on the meaning of Javanese word rasa though the meaning which is applied here quite different from his apprehension. 01-QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:29 AM

20 Frail Local Wisdom, Robust Local Thoughts: Mapping the problems qusthan firdaus 123 Bibliography Ayer, A. J. (1990). The Problem of Knowledge. London: Penguin Books. Blackburn, Simon. (1994). The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Collinson, Diane. (1987). Fifty Major Philosophers: A reference guide. London: Routledge. Miller, Bettye. (2013). Ethicists behavior not more moral. University of California - Newsroom, May 21st, Available online at [http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/29522] last accessed June 6th, 2013 at 09:10 PM. Notonagoro. (1995). Pancasila secara Ilmiah Populer. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, ninth edition. Nozick, Robert. (1974). Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books. Rakhmawati, Lutfi. (2012). Who really owns the word kopitiam? The Jakarta Post, February 27th, Available online at [http://m.thejakartapost.com/ news/2012/02/27/who-really-ownsword-kopitiam.html], last access July 25th, Scharfstein, Ben-Ami. (1974). Mystical Experience. Baltimore: Penguin Books Inc. Virdhani, Marieska Harya. (2013). Jangan Sampai Wayang Diklaim Malaysia. Sindonews.com, April 2nd, Available online at [http://m.sindonews.com/ read/2013/04/02/15/733628/jangansampai-wayang-diklaim-malaysia], last access July 22nd, QUSTHAN FIRDAUS.indd /30/2013 7:34:29 AM

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