1 Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2002), 128, pp A classi cation of FASTEX cyclones using a height-attributable quasi-geostrophic vertical-motion diagnostic By A. C. L. DEVESON 1, K. A. BROWNING 1 and T. D. HEWSON 2 1 University of Reading, UK 2 Met Of ce, UK (Received 8 September 2000; revised 3 May 2001) SUMMARY A systematic and objective procedure is developed for applying the simple cyclone classi cation scheme of Petterssen and Smebye. This method uses a height-attributable solution of the quasi-geostrophic! equation to identify and quantify the relative importance of upper- and lower-tropospheric forcing and also the time trend in the horizontal spacing of the forcing at these two levels. By applying this classi cation method to a sample of cyclogenesis events, during their maximum intensi cation stage, from the Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track EXperiment eld experiment, the Type A and Type B scheme of Petterssen and Smebye is reproduced and extended to include a Type C. Type C consists of upper-level dominated cyclones that form at high latitudes and in their initial stages resemble comma-cloud-type polar lows. Detailed examples of each of the three types are presented. Some cyclones can undergo more than one period of development and it is found that each development period can be classi ed as a different cyclogenesis category, A or B: these cyclones are classi ed as hybrid Type A=B. There is some evidence that cyclone forecast accuracy depends on cyclone type, thereby suggesting the potential for this method to be used to assign con dence levels for forecasts of cyclogenesis produced by numerical weather-prediction models. Type B cyclones appear more dif cult to predict, because their development depends, initially, on the interaction between signi cant features in the upper and lower troposphere. KEYWORDS: Attribution Extratropical cyclones Quasi-geostrophic vertical motion 1. INTRODUCTION The Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track EXperiment (FASTEX) took place in January and February In situ observations were taken of 24 cyclogenesis events that occurred over the North Atlantic basin. As well as observing selected cyclones in detail, extra radiosonde ascents were taken around the perimeter of the North Atlantic and on ships straddling the main baroclinic zone to provide an enhanced description of the background ow. See Joly et al. (1997, 1999) for overviews of the FASTEX experiment. One of the objectives of FASTEX was to verify cyclogenesis theories using the large database of cyclogenesis events in the North Atlantic basin (for a list of references relating to cyclogenetic mechanisms, see Rolfson and Smith (1996)). Joly et al. (1999) and Baehr et al. (1999) have categorized cyclones during FASTEX using new criteria, such as their trajectory, the length of the intensive development phase and their location relative to the jet core; however, these criteria were not applied in an objective manner, nor were they compared with any existing classi cation scheme. The present paper uses data from FASTEX to examine the validity and usefulness of the well known synoptic classi cation scheme of Petterssen and Smebye (1971). Classi cation schemes have been developed to systematize and help understand the variability in the structure, strength, scale and lifetime of extratropical cyclones. Recent synoptic classi cation schemes use satellite imagery and synoptic observations to categorize cyclogenesis. The scheme developed by McLennan and Neil (1988) is an example of one such scheme that has been developed speci cally for use as an alternative forecasting tool to numerical weather-prediction (NWP) models. The most recently developed synoptic classi cation schemes, such as those by Evans et al. (1994) and Young (1993) (also by Bader et al. 1995), classify cyclones using two approaches. Corresponding author: Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, PO Box 243, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6BB, UK. c Royal Meteorological Society, T. D. Hewson s contribution is Crown copyright. 93
2 94 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. TABLE 1. A SUMMARY OF THE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME DEVELOPED BY PETTERSSEN AND SMEBYE (1971) Type A Synoptic situation: Cyclone forms on a front. No pre-existing upper-level trough. A trough may form as the cyclone intensi es. The distance between trough and cyclone remains constant until peak intensity is reached. Vorticity advection: Initially very small at upper levels. Although it increases as the cyclone develops, it remains relatively small. Thermal advection: Very large at low levels and the main contributor to the cyclone s intensi cation. Type B Synoptic situation: Cyclone forms when an upper-level trough moves over a region of warm advection. The axis of the system tends to the vertical as the cyclone intensi es. Distance between trough and cyclone decreases rapidly as cyclone intensi es. Vorticity advection: Initially very large at upper levels. It decreases as peak intensity is approached. Thermal advection: Initially small at low levels, it increases as the cyclone intensi es. They classify cyclones according to their cloud con gurations using work by Weldon (1979). They also classify cyclones in terms of the interactions between the upper-level trough and low-level cyclone. The latter approach is based on the concept introduced by Petterssen et al. (1955) that extratropical cyclogenesis involves vertical as well as lateral interactions. Based on the results from observational studies (Petterssen et al. 1955, 1962) Petterssen went on to develop the rst synoptic classi cation scheme (Petterssen and Smebye 1971, hereafter referred to as PS71). This was a simple classi cation scheme with only two categories, A and B, in contrast to Young s (1993) scheme which has seven types of extratropical cyclogenesis. PS71 originally only identi ed Type A cyclones over the ocean and Type B cyclones over land. However, more recent studies, such as McLennan and Neil (1988), have also identi ed Type B-like cyclones forming over the ocean. Table 1 summarizes the classi cation scheme developed by PS71 in terms of vorticity advection and thermal advection as well as the general synoptic situation. As with all synoptic classi cation schemes, the systematic application of even these rather simple ingredients is dif cult and subjective. Possibly for the reasons suggested later in section 4(a), there have been very few cyclones reported in the literature that could be categorized as strictly Type A since the publication of PS71, although some studies, such as Shapiro and Keyser (1990), have identi ed cases of cyclogenesis with similar characteristics to Type A cyclones. The present study also uses the PS71 classi cation scheme as its starting point. An objective method to apply this scheme was developed using a height-attributable solution of the quasi-geostrophic! equation. Owing to the large number of extra observations assimilated during FASTEX, high-quality NWP analyses are available for a large sample of cyclones. Diagnostics derived from operational NWP model output are, therefore, used to provide the objective method of applying the classi cation scheme. This paper is structured as follows. In section 2, the height-attributable solution to the quasi-geostrophic! equation is introduced. A new systematic procedure for applying the PS71 classi cation scheme using the height-attributable vertical-motion diagnostic is described. Then, idealized Type A and Type B cyclones are described in
3 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 95 terms of the classi cation method. In section 3 results are shown from applying this method to 16 cyclogenesis events which occurred during FASTEX. This leads to the identi cation of several Type A and Type B cyclones and of another category of cyclones referred to as Type C. Finally, in section 4, an example from each category is examined in more detail. Throughout this paper cyclones are referred to by the designated Low number from the FASTEX experiment. 2. A METHOD FOR USING HEIGHT-ATTRIBUTABLE! QG TO CLASSIFY CYCLONES The classi cation scheme developed by PS71, as shown by Table 1, can be viewed in terms of the vorticity advection (VA) and thermal advection (TA). The quasi-geostrophic (QG)! equation relates VA and TA to vertical motion (! QG ). PS71 showed that in Type B cyclones where VA at upper levels dominated then the vertical-motion maximum was at upper levels whereas, in a case of cyclogenesis with similarities to Type A cyclogenesis, the vertical-motion maximum was at a much lower level. If one accepts, in the spirit of PS71, that these examples are more generally valid, then the vertical motion due to VA can be considered to be equivalent to upper-level forced! QG while the vertical motion due to TA can be considered to be equivalent to low-level forced! QG. The assumption that thermal-advection forcing at upper levels and vorticity-advection forcing at lower levels are negligible has, historically, frequently been assumed when examining the vertical-motion structure of extratropical cyclones. That is not to say, however, that this assumption is correct; there is a dearth of literature addressing this particular point. Rolfson and Smith (1996) examined 12 continental USA examples of cyclogenesis. Their results suggest overall that the VA assumption is reasonable (see also Macdonald and Reiter 1988), but that the TA assumption may not be. In particular, large temperature advections at upper levels may have a signi cant impact on surface cyclogenesis. The latter point is reinforced by Hirschberg and Fritsch (1991a, 1991b, 1993) (but note comments by Steenburgh and Holton (1993)), and also Lupo et al. (1992). In part, the Q-vector introduced by Hoskins et al. (1978) aimed to get around problems associated with TA/VA partitioning, and it is indeed a modi ed Q-vector approach that we pursue in this paper, but to make a substantive link back to the work of PS71 we have accepted the PS71 assumptions, albeit with reservations. We use the! QG diagnostics to develop an objective and systematic procedure for applying the PS71 classi cation scheme. (a) Height-attributable! QG The full QG! equation can be written as follows: N 2 rh 2! C f 0 1 ½ s!/ D 2r h :Q (1) where! is the quasi-geostrophic vertical velocity dz=dt (referred to as! QG ), f 0 is the Coriolis parameter, z is the height-like pressure coordinate de ned by Hoskins and Bretherton (1972) and N is the reference Brunt Väisälä frequency which is dependent only on height. ½ s is the reference density pro le: ½ s D ½ 0 exp z H ½ : (2) Q is the Q-vector as de ned by Hoskins et al. (1978) while r h is the horizontal gradient on a constant-z surface.
4 96 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. Figure 1. Vertical-motion distribution attributable at 45 ± N to a 125 km-radius ball source of 2r h :Q D m 1 s 3 at 500 hpa. Contours are at intervals of 0.2 cm s 1 (dashed) and 1 cm s 1 (solid). After Clough et al. (1996). A method of solving Eq. (1) that enables vertical motion at any point in space to be attributed to the temperature and geostrophic wind structure within user-speci ed layers, or slabs of the atmosphere, is described by Clough and Davitt (1994) and Clough et al. (1996). This involves applying an electrostatic analogy as introduced by Thorpe and Bishop (1995), effectively utilizing an! D 0 boundary condition at the lowest model level (though note that other approaches to this problem exist see for example Zwack and Okossi (1986)). Solutions for! QG from the Clough et al. methodology exhibit a reduced sensitivity to small-scale features and sources close to the boundaries, including the surface (see Clough et al for details). This is not a function of the method of solution, but a fundamental property of the atmosphere s response characteristics under forcing, and should thus not be viewed as problematic. However, one practical dif culty that does exist is the domain dependence of the solution. This is because the quasi-geostrophic assumption requires static stability to be constant in the horizontal. In calculating the! QG diagnostics, a domain-averaged static stability is used at every level. Figure 1 shows the distribution of! QG due to a attened ball source of forcing for vertical motion of radius 125 km located at 500 hpa as calculated by Clough et al. (1996). This shows that a source of! QG, 125 km in radius, of similar magnitude to a synoptic feature, can affect the vertical-velocity eld out to 1000 km in the horizontal and over the whole depth of the atmosphere. Using manual methods of estimating vertical motion from the QG! equation, such as the convergence of Q-vectors (see Sanders and Hoskins 1990), this source of! QG would be included in the Q-vectors calculated only at 500 hpa, even though it in uences the whole depth of the atmosphere. However, by solving the QG! equation in the manner proposed by Clough and Davitt (1994) and Clough et al. (1996),! QG can be calculated at all points, with contributions from all sources of forcing. Height attribution can then be achieved by calculating! QG forced only from speci ed layers of the atmosphere. In this study one of our guiding principles was wanting to apportion the full (QG) vertical velocity at one mid-tropospheric level essentially into two constituent parts, one of which is attributable to the atmosphere s thermodynamic structure at upper levels, whilst the other is attributable to the structure at lower levels. This aim accords well with the notion of upper-level forcing frequently referred to in the literature, and indeed also in operational forecasting environments. In selecting a mid-tropospheric level to focus on, we wanted to be suf ciently close to the surface to have a clear connection with surface weather, and hence near-surface cyclone structure, but also
5 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 97 TABLE 2. VALUES OF THE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM VER- TICAL VELOCITY ( 10 2 m s 1 ) FORCED FROM UPPER LEV- ELS (P U AND N U ) AND LOWER LEVELS (P L AND N L ) AT 700 hpa AT 1200 UTC 8 FEBRUARY 1997 IN ASSOCIATION WITH LOW 33 Date P U N U P L N L 12 UTC 8 February : :40 suf ciently far away to avoid boundary-layer effects dominating. For these reasons we selected 700 hpa. This is also commonly the steering level for baroclinic disturbances and is, similarly, the level utilized by Clough and Davitt (1994) and Hoskins and Pedder (1980). Whilst another level could have been chosen, and indeed whilst different levels may be more appropriate for different types of cyclone, for internal consistency within this study we focus on the 700 hpa level throughout. It also follows that one should de ne the upper level bounds to end just above the level in question, and the lower level bounds to end just below, because otherwise, as signi ed by Clough and Davitt (1994), the apparent impact of one layer would have been so large that it would have swamped the impact of the other. Hence we arrived at 1050 to 750 hpa as our lower level layer, and 650 to 50 hpa as our upper level layer. An example of an extratropical cyclone, Low 33 from FASTEX, is now used to explain how this diagnostic can be applied to examine cyclogenesis. Figure 2(a) shows Low 33 at 1200 UTC 8 February 1997, the time of maximum intensi cation. The geopotential heights at 1000 hpa and 300 hpa are shown in order to represent the structure of the low-level cyclone and upper-level trough, respectively. The potential vorticity (PV) contour at 400 hpa corresponding to 1 PV unit (PVU) is also shown to indicate the location of the positive upper-level PV anomaly associated with the development. Figure 2(b) shows this cross-section from south-west to north-east. It can be seen from Fig. 2(b) that the! QG distributions forced from both upper and lower levels, respectively, extend beyond each of these layers, and indeed overlap each other at 700 hpa. Four points have been labelled on Fig. 2(b). They represent the maximum positive and negative upper-level forced! QG at 700 hpa, labelled P U and N U, respectively, and the maximum positive and negative lower-level forced! QG at 700 hpa, labelled P L and N L, respectively. Table 2 gives the values of! QG at these points. From this table it can be seen that at this time the! QG at 700 hpa forced from upper levels was greater than the! QG at 700 hpa forced from lower levels. Therefore, it could be said that, at this time in the cyclone development, the cyclone was predominantly upperlevel forced (accepting that there is some arbitrariness in the choice of 700 hpa as the mid-tropospheric reference level). Figure 3(a) displays the upper-level forced! QG at 700 hpa superimposed on the 300 hpa geopotential-height eld from Fig. 2(a). Similarly, Fig. 3(b) displays the lowerlevel forced! QG at 700 hpa superimposed on the 1000 hpa geopotential height from Fig. 2(a). The! QG dipoles associated with the upper-level trough and the low-level cyclone can clearly be identi ed and the maxima in ascent and descent are labelled P U, N U, P L and N L as in Fig. 2(b). The! QG dipole in Fig. 3(a) is related to the vorticity advection associated with the trough axis. Analysis of this and other events shows that maxima in! QG at 700 hpa corresponding to points P U and N U can always be identi ed if such an upper-level trough is present. Similarly the points P L and N L can always be identi ed in the low-level forced! QG eld at 700 hpa if there is a low-level cyclone present, because the! QG dipole in Fig. 3(b) is produced by the thermal advection around
6 98 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. (a) T L33 (b) T (hpa) N U N L PU P L L33 Figure 2. Diagnostics from Low 33 at 1200 UTC 8 February (a) Geopotential height at 1000 hpa (solid contours) and 300 hpa (dashed contours) and potential vorticity (PV) greater than 1 PV unit at 400 hpa (dotted contours). The thick solid line represents the location of the cross-section. (b) Cross-section, along the direction of travel of Low 33, through the upper-level trough and low centre, showing! QG forced from between 650 and 50 hpa (solid contours at intervals of m s 1 ) and! QG forced from between 1050 and 750 hpa (dashed contours at intervals of m s 1 ). L33 represents the location of the surface low-pressure centre and T the location of the upper-level trough axis on the cross-section. P U, N U and P L, N L represent the locations of the ascent and descent maxima at 700 hpa forced from upper and lower levels, respectively. The bold dashed lines represent the lower and upper limits, respectively, of the sources of upper- and lower-level forcing of! QG.
7 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 99 (a) Pu N u (b) P L NL Figure 3. Further diagnostics of Low 33 at 1200 UTC 8 February (a)! QG at 700 hpa forced from levels between 650 hpa and 50 hpa, with solid contours for ascent and dashed contours for descent at intervals of m s 1, overlaid with 300 hpa geopotential height (dotted contours). (b)! QG at 700 hpa forced from levels between 1050 hpa and 750 hpa, with solid contours for ascent and dashed contours for descent at intervals of m s 1, overlaid with 1000 hpa geopotential height (dotted contours). P U, N U and P L, N L represent the locations of the ascent and descent maxima at 700 hpa forced from upper and lower levels, respectively.
8 100 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. the cyclone. This means that, by locating the! QG dipoles forced from upper and lower levels at 700 hpa, the upper-level trough and low-level cyclone can be tracked and the relative strengths of the associated forcing can be quanti ed. At present these points are tracked manually, with their magnitude and relative location noted every three hours. This reduces the objectivity of using this diagnostic. However, it would be possible to adapt an automatic tracking routine such as that developed by Hodges (1994) to track these features. Also of note in Fig. 3 is the difference in horizontal scales between the upperand lower-level forcing dipoles. The upper-level forcing dipole is clearly larger. This is typical, and is because the response to forcing is dependent on the altitude of the forcing source. Practically, this also means that forcing sources at high altitudes can in uence vertical motion, and indeed synoptic development, at longer (horizontal) ranges than could equivalent sources lower down in the atmosphere. The! QG diagnostics are calculated throughout this paper from output from the Met Of ce Limited Area Model (LAM) that was operational early in 1997 (Panagi and Dicks 1997). The full LAM domain includes a large area of land. This means that the domain-averaged static-stability pro le required for! QG calculations is not necessarily representative of an oceanic region, where the case-studies we shall be examining occurred. In particular, in winter, heat uxes up into the atmosphere at midlatitudes are far greater over oceans than over land, implying a less stable average pro le over these oceans. Therefore, from now on in this paper,! QG will be shown using the so-called DISP display system which uses a reduced, mainly oceanic domain and interpolates LAM output onto a polar stereographic grid with a resolution of 100 hpa in the vertical and approximately 100 km in the horizontal (Roberts 1998). This domain is centred on the North Atlantic and is more appropriate for examining cyclones crossing this region. Although DISP calculates the! QG diagnostics at a lower horizontal resolution than possible with the original LAM output, this was found not to alter signi cantly the synoptic-scale features of the! QG distribution (this is because the integration reduces sensitivity to small scales). (b) A new method for applying the classi cation scheme of Petterssen and Smebye The criteria distinguishing Type A and Type B cyclogenesis as de ned by PS71 in Table 1 can be re-expressed as: ² Does an upper-level trough pre-exist the initiation of low-level cyclogenesis? No Type A; Yes Type B. ² Does VA at upper levels or TA at lower levels dominate? TA Type A; VA Type B. ² Does the separation between the upper-level trough and cyclone remain roughly constant or decrease as the cyclone intensi es? Constant Type A; Decrease Type B. An upper-level trough is de ned to be associated with a low-level cyclone if there exists an upper-level forced! QG dipole at 700 hpa with the ascent maximum downstream of the descent maximum within 2000 km of the low-level cyclone. The relative magnitudes of VA and TA are evaluated indirectly by means of a ratio of the height-attributable! QG diagnostics referred to as the U=L ratio. This is the ratio of forcing for vertical motion at 700 hpa attributable to upper levels (the proxy for VA associated with the upper-level trough) to forcing for vertical motion at 700 hpa attributable to lower levels (the proxy for TA associated with the low-level cyclone). This ratio shows whether upper-level forced or lower-level forced! QG dominates the
9 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION hPa maximum relative vorticity U/L ratio tilt Figure 4. A schematic graph showing the time history of the U=L ratio (see text) and vertical tilt of the forcing (km), and also the 900 hpa maximum relative vorticity ( 10 5 s 1 ) for an idealized Type A cyclone. cyclogenesis event. The evolution of this ratio can be viewed to see how the cyclone evolves during cyclogenesis. An averaged value can also be calculated to summarize the forcing regime throughout the cyclogenesis event. The lifetime of a cyclogenesis event was taken as starting when the 900 hpa relative-vorticity maximum increased to over 8: s 1 and ending when it reached its maximum intensity (within the LAM domain). The average U=L ratio was calculated as follows. First, the magnitude of the upper-level forced! QG dipole was calculated by summing the magnitudes of the maximum ascent and maximum descent at 700 hpa forced from the upper level, (referred to in this study as the upper-level dipole strength, jd U j). Then, the lower-level dipole strength, jd L j, was calculated in a similar fashion. The magnitudes of both ascent and descent were included because the relative strength of the ascent and descent maxima were found to be relevant to the structure of the cyclone. The U=L ratio of the upperand lower-level dipole strength (jd U j=jd L j) was then calculated at each time step. To give equal weighting to values of the ratio above and below 1.0, the natural log of the ratios was taken. The exponential of the average of the logged ratios was then used to represent the dominant forcing during a cyclogenesis event. Although the time-averaged U=L ratio does not show the variation in the forcing during cyclogenesis, we shall show that it clearly distinguishes between the different regimes that can occur. To represent the tilt between the upper-level trough and low-level cyclone, the distance between the ascent maxima at 700 hpa forced from upper levels and lower levels is measured. This is given as positive if the upper-level forced-ascent maximum was to the west or north of the cyclone and negative if to the south or east. It was found that the upper-level forced-ascent maximum was always initially to the north or west of the cyclone but could overtake the cyclone. This is not the traditional tilt measured in baroclinic systems. Instead, it is the displacement between the maximum forcing for ascent from upper levels and lower levels, felt at 700 hpa. This displacement or vertical tilt of forcing is being used here to quantify the distance between the upperlevel trough and low-level cyclone as discussed by PS71. If a cyclone falls into the PS71 Type B category then it is expected that the separation distance should decrease as the cyclone intensi es. Therefore, for Type B cyclones, a signi cant negative correlation
10 102 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. 900hPa maximum relative vorticity U/L ratio tilt Figure 5. A schematic graph showing the time history of the U=L ratio (see text) and vertical tilt of the forcing (km), and also the 900 hpa maximum relative vorticity ( 10 5 s 1 ) for an idealized Type B cyclone. should be expected between the cyclone intensity (given by the 900 hpa maximum relative vorticity) and the tilt value. No such signi cant correlation is expected in Type A cyclones. The least-squares correlation coef cient, R 2, is therefore used to de ne whether the cyclone has a Type B tilt regime (high negative correlation found) or a Type A tilt regime (low correlation). In summary, it is expected that a Type A cyclone should have a small value for the average U=L ratio and show no signi cant correlation between the maximum 900 hpa relative vorticity and the vertical tilt of the forcing during cyclogenesis. This is shown by the time-history plots in Fig. 4 for an idealized Type A cyclone. Type B cyclones, on the other hand, should have a large value for the average U=L ratio and show a relatively high anti-correlation between the maximum 900 hpa relative vorticity and tilt. This is shown by the time-history plots in Fig. 5 for an idealized Type B cyclone. 3. RESULTS OF CLASSIFYING 16 CYCLOGENESIS EVENTS Rather than, say, focusing on those cyclones over the last decade or so which (usually for impact reasons) have been the subject of previous studies, we have instead tried to produce a relatively unbiased classi cation scheme by using a subset of the cyclones which occurred over the North Atlantic during FASTEX (January February 1997), using an objective criterion for inclusion. This criterion de nes cyclones which underwent sustained development. The nature of each cyclonic development was assessed using the value of the maximum relative vorticity at 900 hpa. For a cyclone to then be classi ed as having undergone sustained development, this vorticity must have increased by 3: s 1 over a 12-hour period while within the North Atlantic domain. For lower values of cyclogenesis we found the vertical motion patterns and evolution to be noisy. This resulted in a sample of 16 cases of cyclogenesis (of which 11 were observed during FASTEX Intensive Observing Periods (IOPs)). The cases were examined using the methods described in section 2(a). Table 3 shows the average U=L ratios and the correlation coef cient, R 2, as described in section 2(b). Also shown is the probability, p, that a hypothesis of no correlation between relative
11 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 103 TABLE 3. AVERAGED U=L RATIO (SEE TEXT), AND THE CORRELATION COEFFI CIENT (R 2 ) BETWEEN THE RELATIVE VORTICITY AND VERTICAL TILT OF THE FORCING, FOR ALL THE CYCLONES EXAMINED Type Date Low (IOP) Ave. U=L R 2 p A 1 3 February 1997 Low 27 (9) A February 1997 Low 37 (14) A 2 5 February 1997 Low A 6 8 February 1997 Low February 1997 Low 41 (17) 1.4 B 8 10 January 1997 Low 8a (1) B February 1997 Low 38 (15) February 1997 Low 30 (11) 1.7 B February 1997 Low 42A B 8 9 February 1997 Low 33 (11a) B February 1997 Low 42B B 8 9 February 1997 Low 34A (12) B February 1997 Low 39A (16) C February 1997 Low 39B C January 1997 Low 18 (4) C February 1997 Low 44 (18) Listed in reverse order of magnitude of U=L ratio. See section 2(b) for de nitions. Also shown is the probability, p, that the correlation was not signi cant. IOP = Intensive Observing Period. TABLE 4. SAME AS TABLE 3 BUT FOR LOW 30 AND LOW 41, EACH SUBDIVIDED INTO TWO SEPARATE PERIODS OF CYCLOGENESIS Type Date Low (IOP) Ave. U=L R 2 p B 4 5 February 1997 Low 30 (11) A 6 February 1997 Low 30 (11) A February 1997 Low 41 (17) B 19 February 1997 Low 41 (17) vorticity and the vertical tilt of the forcing is correct. Using a 95% con dence level, if p is less than 0.05 then the correlation is signi cant. (The correlation coef cient and p are not shown for Low 30 and Low 41 in Table 3. This is because both these cyclones underwent two different periods of cyclogenesis which were separated by at least 12 hours. The average U=L ratio, R 2 and p for each cyclogenesis period of Lows 30 and 41 are given in Table 4 and are discussed later.) Table 3 shows that there is a wide variation in the value of the U=L ratio. Some cases are dominated by upper-level forced vertical motion (e.g. Lows 18 and 44) while some have comparable amounts of upper- and lower-level forced vertical motion (e.g. Lows 27 and 37). We take cyclogenesis events with an average U=L ratio less than 1.2 to be dominated (in a relative sense) by forcing for vertical motion from lower levels. The choice of this speci c value, although somewhat arbitrary, is supported by the following analysis of the correlation coef cient. There appears to be a relationship in Table 3 between the value of the U=L ratio and R 2 (the correlation between the vertical tilt of the forcing and the maximum 900 hpa relative vorticity). Cyclones with U=L ratios between 1.2 and 3.0 all show some signi cant (anti-) correlation between the tilt and relative-vorticity trends (shown by a value of p less than 0.05) while undergoing cyclogenesis: we shall argue that these correspond to Type B cyclones. Those cyclones with U=L ratios below 1.2 or above 3.0 show no signi cant correlation (p greater than 0.05). The low-level dominated cyclones, with average U=L ratios of less than 1.2 and no
12 104 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. Figure 6. Graphs showing the time history of the U=L ratio (see text) and vertical tilt of the forcing (km), and also the 900 hpa maximum relative vorticity ( 10 5 s 1 ) for the Type A cyclone, Low 27 from 0000 UTC 2 February 1997 to 1800 UTC 3 February signi cant correlation correspond to PS71 s Type A cyclones. The strongly upper-level dominated cyclones, with U=L ratios greater than 3.0 but with no signi cant correlation, correspond to neither Type A nor Type B. We refer to them as Type C and will discuss them later in this section. Figure 6 shows graphs of the time series of the U=L ratio and separation measure for the ascent maxima associated with Low 27, the most low-level dominated cyclone observed. This graph shows that the U=L ratio associated with Low 27 remained close to 1.0 throughout the period in which the cyclone was within the North Atlantic domain. There was also an increase in the relative importance of the low-level forced ascent at 700 hpa when the cyclone underwent signi cant cyclogenesis between 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC 3 February The separation of the upper-level trough and cyclone, represented by the vertical tilt of the forcing, remained constant until the cyclone reached peak intensity at 1200 UTC 3 February This all agrees closely with the PS71 de nition of a Type A cyclone. According to PS71, all upper-level forced cyclones should show a correlation between the cyclone s relative vorticity and the separation of the trough and cyclone (represented by the vertical tilt of the forcing), and they should fall into the Type B category. However, it can be seen from Table 3 that only the cyclones with U=L ratios between 1.2 and 3.0 displayed this correlation. Those cyclones which were strongly dominated by upper-level forcing (U=L ratio greater than 3.0) showed no signi cant correlation between relative vorticity and tilt. This suggests that the upper-level forced cyclones may fall into two categories, identi ed in Table 3 as B and C. These two types are exempli ed by Figs. 7 and 8 which show graphs of the U=L ratio and vertical tilt of the forcing associated with Lows 33 and 44, respectively. Low 33 is the cyclone event with the highest correlation between relative vorticity and separation, while Low 44 is the cyclone with the highest U=L ratio. Low 33 is a typical frontal-wave development, triggered when an upper-level trough interacted with a trailing cold front. Figure 7 shows that Low 33 was characterized by initially high values of the U=L ratio. This ratio
13 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 105 Figure 7. Graphs showing the time history of the U=L ratio (see text) and vertical tilt of the forcing (km), and also the 900 hpa maximum relative vorticity ( 10 5 s 1 ) for the Type B cyclone, Low 33 from 1800 UTC 7 February 1997 to 1200 UTC 9 February Figure 8. Graphs showing the time history of the U=L ratio (see text) and vertical tilt of the forcing (km), and also the 900 hpa maximum relative vorticity ( 10 5 s 1 ) for the Type C cyclone, Low 44 from 0000 UTC 22 February 1997 to 2100 UTC 23 February decreased sharply as cyclogenesis occurred due to an increase in thermal advection at low levels. The separation between the trough and the cyclone (represented by the vertical tilt) was at a maximum when the frontal wave formed and decreased as the cyclogenesis proceeded. This cyclone was a prime example of a Type B cyclone as de ned by PS71. (The earlier Figs. 2 and 3, relate to this case.) Figure 8 shows that Low 44 was initially strongly dominated by upper-level forced ascent. Although the U=L ratio did decrease as the cyclone evolved and developed, it
14 106 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. TABLE 5. AN OBJECTIVE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME OF EXTRATROPICAL CYCLONES Cyclone category Ave. U=L ratio range Cyclogenesis tilt correlation Type A: low-level dominated less than 1.2 weak Type B: frontal-wave cyclone between 1.2 and 3.0 strong Type C: upper-level dominated greater than 3.0 weak Ave. U=L ratio is a measure of the relative importance of upper- and lower-level forcing averaged over the entire period of cyclogenesis. Cyclogenesis tilt correlation refers to whether a correlation is found between the relative vorticity and the vertical tilt of the forcing. maintained a higher value than was seen in Low 33. There was also a distinct difference in the trend of the vertical tilt of the forcing. The tilt was close to a minimum as major cyclogenesis started and then increased as the low-level maximum relative vorticity increased. This indicated that when cyclogenesis was initiated the system displayed little westward tilt with height. However, the westward tilt increased as the cyclone intensi ed and the low-level forcing became relatively more important. Such an increase in tilt as the cyclogenesis occurred was found in all the cases with an U=L ratio greater than 3.0. This suggests a third category of extratropical cyclogenesis which was not included in PS71 s scheme. To continue the notation of that scheme, this new, third category is referred to as Type C cyclogenesis. This category will be examined in more detail in section 4(c) where it is shown to correspond to a polar-low type of cyclogenesis during its initial stages. Table 5 summarizes the new extended version of PS71 s classi cation scheme. There were only two cyclones observed that did not t easily into this extended classi cation scheme. These are Low 30 and Low 41, shown earlier in Table 4, each of which underwent two periods of deepening. It seems from Table 4 that in each case the deepening phases fell into different regimes. It is suggested that both these cyclones were a hybrid of Type A and Type B cyclogenesis, with each cyclone undergoing periods of deepening corresponding to the different categories. Closer examination of Low 41 showed that it did in fact go through one period of cyclogenesis with a structure very similar to Type A, followed by a period of decay. When it redeveloped it then had a similar structure to a Type B cyclone. Low 30 does not t into our classi cation scheme well in that the correlation (R 2 ) was not signi cant during its rst period of cyclogenesis during which the averaged U=L ratio indicated it to be Type B. 4. CASE-STUDIES TO ILLUSTRATE EACH CYCLONE CATEGORY This section presents a case-study for each category and will relate the! QG diagnostics to the synoptic situation. For Type A and Type B cyclogenesis the case-study will concentrate on the time of maximum development. For the new category, Type C, the whole life cycle will be discussed in some detail. A review of the FASTEX IOPs, including overviews of all the cases discussed in this section, can be found in Joly et al. (1999) and Clough et al. (1998). Figure 9 shows satellite imagery and surface analyses for the three examples chosen to represent each of the main cyclone types (A, B and C) at the time of maximum deepening. Animations of similar plots (infrared satellite imagery and objective fronts plotted at 900 and 600 hpa) are available at the Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology (JCMM) FASTEX workshop website for all the cases discussed in this section. It is (August 2001).
15 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 107 L (a) L (b)  L   (c) Figure 9. Infrared imagery from Meteosat overlaid with mean-sea-level pressure contours (solid, every 4 hpa) at the time of maximum deepening for (a) Low 27 (Type A) at 0300 UTC 3 February 1997; (b) Low 33 (Type B) at 1200 UTC 8 February 1997; and (c) Low 44 (Type C) at 0600 UTC 23 February The locations of the surface warm and cold fronts are based on those obtained from the objective plotting routine in Hewson (1998). Dashed fronts indicate the decaying fronts. The dashed white lines in (c) represent cloud features that began as three small comma clouds:  is represented by its axis and  and  by envelopes.
16 108 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. (a) (b) P L N U N L PV max PU Low27 Figure 10. Quasi-geostrophic vertical motion at 700 hpa forced from (a) upper levels and (b) lower levels associated with Low 27 at 0300 UTC 3 February 1997 (solid contours, ascent; dashed contours descent, every 0.5 cm s 1 ). Low 27 is a Type A cyclone. P U, N U and P L, N L represent the locations of the ascent and descent maxima at 700 hpa forced from upper levels and lower levels, respectively. PV max is the location of the positive potential-vorticity anomaly at 400 hpa associated with the upper-level trough. dif cult to identify differences in the structure of these three different types of cyclones from conventional synoptic charts especially when viewed at only one time. However, in this section it will be shown that the key differences in the structure of the cyclones can be easily identi ed using the! QG diagnostics. There will also be discussion of the accuracy of the forecasts for each category based on the assessment of the accuracy of the Met Of ce Uni ed Model in Clough et al. (1998) (also available at the FASTEX website). The forecasts were validated at a time when each cyclone was in the so-called multiscale sampling area (which consisted of the eastern part of the North Atlantic (Joly et al. 1997, 1999)) and were assessed on the basis of the error in the location and intensity of the surface low-pressure centre. (a) Low 27: An example of Type A cyclogenesis An overview of the evolution of Low 27 using the! QG diagnostics was given in Fig. 6. This cyclone formed over North America before crossing the North Atlantic. From 1800 UTC 1 February 1997, there were indications that an occlusion was forming as the distance between the surface warm and cold fronts decreased. At this time, Low 27 was a mature decaying cyclone. However, at 1200 UTC 2 February 1997 a secondary surface front developed and by 0000 UTC 3 February 1997 the surface warm front had intensi ed causing Low 27 to resemble an open frontal-wave cyclone. This new warm front can be seen three hours later in Fig. 9(a) as the warm front downstream of the low centre. The original decaying frontal structure is also shown (dashed) in this gure. By this time Low 27 had started to undergo cyclogenesis. Figure 6 indicates an increase in the relative strength of the low-level forced! QG at 700 hpa and Fig. 10 shows that the low-level forced! QG dipole at 700 hpa was the same order of magnitude and scale as the dipole forced from upper levels. This implies that this period of deepening was mainly due to changes in the low-level thermal eld. There was an upper-level trough and positive PV anomaly associated with the cyclone at this time. However, this PV anomaly had weakened during the preceding 12 hours and did not begin to re-intensify until the cyclone had reached its peak intensity. The other FASTEX cyclones in this category showed similar features when undergoing cyclogenesis. In particular, the redevelopment of the surface frontal structure was a clear indicator of the initiation of cyclogenesis. Although contradicting one of the PS71
17 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 109 (a) (b) PU P L PV max Low33 N L N U Figure 11. As for Fig. 10 but for the Type B cyclone, Low 33 at 1200 UTC 8 February criteria for Type A cyclogenesis, all the Type A cyclones examined here did have a preexisting upper-level trough. However, this was found not to be a major factor in their development. Few cases of Type A cyclogenesis have been reported since the papers of Petterssen et al. (1962) and PS71. This may be due to the low-level forced cyclones that have been studied being unable to ful l the excessively strict criterion that no upperlevel trough should precede the cyclogenesis (Bluestein 1993). It is possible that, owing to inadequate upper air data, Petterssen et al. (1962) were unable to identify relatively weak upper-level troughs behind the cyclones as observed in the low-level-dominated cases here. The forecast accuracy of two of the Type A cyclones examined here was discussed in Clough et al. (1998). Both Low 27 (IOP9) and Low 37 (IOP14) were well forecast by the operational Met Of ce Uni ed Model, especially their location, up to TC120. The good accuracy in forecasting these Type A cyclones may be due to these cyclones forming over North America where there was a large amount of observational data. The accuracy of the forecasts could also have been in uenced by the long lifetime and slow evolution which are typical of Type A events. Paradoxically, one of the aims of FASTEX had been to study poorly forecast frontal waves, yet we have captured here Type A waves which were well forecast. In part this may have been a sampling problem unavoidably forced by mobilization and expenditure constraints, although we do believe that the larger Type A cyclones, at least, are generally well forecast. (b) Low 33: An example of Type B cyclogenesis An overview of the evolution of Low 33 was given in Fig. 7. Low 33 was a small intense cyclone which crossed the Atlantic rapidly with an average speed of 23 m s 1. The warm and cold fronts were of comparable strength and a cloud head and dry intrusion formed as it developed. The low was associated with its own upperlevel positive PV anomaly. Figure 11 shows the! QG dipoles at 700 hpa forced from upper and lower levels in association with Low 33 at the time of the maximum rate of deepening. It is clear from the! QG elds that Low 33 was quite small in scale. The upper-level forced! QG dipole had a larger magnitude (see Table 2) and was of a greater scale than the lower-level forced dipole, indicating the dominance of the upper-level forcing. At this time the upper-level trough was close to the cyclone and the tilt of the system approached the vertical. This separation of the trough and cyclone had decreased throughout the development of Low 33 as expected for a Type B cyclone.
18 110 A. C. L. DEVESON et al. Type B cyclones were the most common type of cyclogenesis observed during FASTEX. They all involved the interaction of an upper-level trough with a low-level cyclone and its associated fronts in which the separation between the trough and cyclone decreased during cyclogenesis. Joly et al. (1999) found that all the Type B cyclones discussed here were initially second-generation waves on fronts. A large amount of research has been carried out on secondary frontal-wave cyclones, most recently by Parker (1998), Rivals et al. (1998) and Chaboureau and Thorpe (1999). A comprehensive forecast- eld dataset was not readily available for this study; however, Clough et al. (1998) did examine the forecast accuracy of many of the Type B cyclones, namely Lows 8 (IOP1), 33 (IOP11a), 34A (IOP12), 38 (IOP15) and 39A (IOP16). They were found to be forecast with varying degrees of success during FASTEX. The location of these Type B cyclones tended to be well forecast for lead times out to three days. However, the accuracy of the predicted central pressure varied from good for Low 38 (error of 2 hpa) to poor for Low 33 (error of C8 hpa) in the 24-hour forecast. Low 38 had the largest scale of any of the Type B cyclones identi ed while Low 33 was one of the smallest. This raises the possibility that the accuracy of the forecasts of Type B cyclones might be in uenced by the scale of the system. All the Type B cyclones had signi cant errors in the central pressure for forecasts with lead times in excess of three days and the formation of only a few were predicted beyond lead times of four days. This is likely to be due to their short life cycle and the need for the location of both the upper-level trough and the low-level thermal gradient to be correctly predicted at the time of initiation. The forecasts were further hindered as all the Type B cyclones identi ed here were initiated over the ocean where fewer observations were assimilated operationally. Signi cantly, perhaps, hybrid Type A=B cyclone Low 41, when validated in its Type B phase (by Clough et al. 1998), was consistently poorly forecast, with under deepening at all lead times, ranging from 49 hpa at TC120 to 7 hpa at TC24. Conversely the other hybrid, Low 30, was much more accurately predicted at all lead times, perhaps because the validity time was in its Type A phase. (c) Low 44: An example of Type C cyclogenesis Of the 16 cyclones studied, three were classi ed as exhibiting Type C cyclogenesis. Two of these, Lows 18 and 44, were designated FASTEX IOPs while the third, Low 39B, was designated Lesser Observing Period, (LOP), 4. This section analyses Low 44 as a well de ned example of Type C cyclogenesis. Low 44 formed as an upper-level trough and crossed the ice edge into the Labrador Sea at approximately 57 ± N, 55 ± W at 0000 UTC 22 February Donnadile et al. (2001) have examined the PV anomaly and tropopause fold associated with the upper-level trough. However, they did not examine the development of Low 44 that was forced by the upper-level trough. Figure 9(c) shows the surface analysis and cloud imagery for Low 44 at 0600 UTC 23 February 1997, as it underwent explosive development. Figures 12(a) and (b) show the! QG dipoles at 700 hpa forced from (a) upper and (b) lower levels in association with Low 44 at 0600 UTC 22 February 1997, six hours after a low-level relative-vorticity centre was rst identi ed, but 24 hours before the time of maximum deepening shown in Fig. 9. When Low 44 formed, it had no signi cant frontal structure although the 900 hpa wet-bulb potential temperature (µ w ) eld (not shown) shows that there was a large region of cold air located upstream of the low centre. The upper-level trough associated with Low 44 was a short-wave feature embedded in a longer wave trough. The tropopause depression associated with this trough was the deepest observed during FASTEX, with the model-analysed PV=2 PVU surface descending to a height of 2.7 km at 0000 UTC
19 CYCLONE CLASSIFICATION 111 (a) (b) NU N L Low44 P L PV max P U (c) (d) N U PV max P U N L Low44 P L (e) (f) NU PV max P U N L Low44 P L (g) (h) P L P U N L Low44 N U PV max Figure 12. As for Fig. 10 but for an example of Type C cyclogenesis: Low 44 at (a), (b) 0600 UTC 22 February 1997, just after initiation; (c), (d) 1800 UTC 22 February 1997, prior to explosive deepening; (e), (f) 0600 UTC 23 February 1997, during explosive deepening; and (g), (h) 1800 UTC 23 February 1997, at peak intensity.
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