DAFTAR PUSTAKA. Corley R H V and Tinker P B The Oil Palm. Fourth Edition. Blackwell Science. Oxford.

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1 24 DAFTAR PUSTAKA Abdullah R., Zainal A., Heng W. Y., Li L. C., Beng Y. C., Phing L. M., Sirajuddin S. A., Ping W. Y. S., Joseph J. L., Jusoh S. A., Muad M. R and Huey Y. L Immature Embryo: A usefull Tool for Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jaqc.) Genetic Transformation Study. Electron Journal Biothecnology. 8: Ahee J, P. Arthuis, G. Cas, Y. Duval, G.Guenin, J.Hanower, P. Hanower,D.Lievoux, C.Lioret, B.Malaurie,C.Pannetier, C. Raillot, D. Varechon and L.Zuckermann La Multiplication Vegetatif in vitro Du Palmier a Huile Par Embryogenese Somatique. Oleagineux, 36(3), Angestiwi D Pengaruh Konsentrasi Pupuk Daun dan Macam Media Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Tanaman Anthurium (Anthurium jemanii). [Skripsi]. Surakarta: UNS. Astuti N Pertumbuhan Eksplan Tunas Apikal Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS dengan Kombinasi BAP dan 2,4-D. [Skripsi]. Medan:, Program Sarjana. Aulia, I Pengaruh Pemberian 2,4-D dan Frekuensi Subkultur terhadap Perubahan Genetik Kalus dari Kalus Bunga Betina Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). [Skripsi]. Medan:, Program Sarjana. Bassam, B. J., Caetano-Anollés, G., and Gresshoff, P. M Fast and Sensitive Silver Staining of DNA in Polyacrylamide Gels. Analytical Biochemistry. 196: 80. Bayzura, E. N Pengaruh 2,4-D dan Frekuensi Subkultur Terhadap Perubahan Genetik Kultur Apikal Bud Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS. [Skripsi]. Medan:, Program Sarjana. Corley R H V and Tinker P B The Oil Palm. Fourth Edition. Blackwell Science. Oxford. Corley, R. H. V., C. H. Lee, I. H. Law & C. Y. Wong Abnormal flower development in oil palm clones. ThePlanter.62, Decruse S. W., Gangaprasad A, Seeni S, and Sarajini M. V Micropropagation and Ecorestoration of Vanda spathulata, an Exquisite Orchid. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 72:

2 25 Doyle, J. J. and J. L. Doyle A rapid DNA isolation procedure for fresh plant tissue. Focus. 12: Duncan, R.R Tissue Culture-Induced Variation and Crop Improvement. Advice Agronom. 58: Duran-Gasselin T. Y, Duval L, Baudouin A. B. Maheran K, Konan and J.M.Noire Description and Degree of The Mantled Flowering Abnormality in Oil Palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) Clones Produced Using The Orstam- CIRADProcedure. In Proc. of the 1993 ISOPBInt. Symp. Recent Development in OilPalm Tissue Culture andbiotechnology. Kuala Lumpur, 14-15September, 1993, p Eeuwens C J et al Effects of Tissue Culture Condition During Embryoid Mutiplication on the Incidence of Mantled Flowering in Clonally Propagated Oil Palm. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 70: Eeuwens, C.J., Lord, S.C.R., Donough, V.R., Vallejo, G. and Nelson, S Effects of Tissue Culture Conditions During Embryoid Multiplication on the Incidence of Mantled Flowering in Clonally Propagated Oil Palm.Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 70: Feher A., Paternak T. P and Dudits D Transition of Somatic Plant Cells to an Embryogenic State. Plant Cell Tissue Orgaan Culture. 74: Fereol L., Chovelon V., Cause M., Michaux-Ferriere N and Kahane R Evidence of a Somatic Embryogenesis Process for Plant Regeneration in Galic (Allium sativum L.). Plant Cell Reports. 21: Flick, C.E., D.A. Evans, and W.R. Sharp Organogenesis.In D.A. Evans, W.R. Sharp, P.V. Amirato, and T.Yamada (eds.) Handbook of Plant Cell Culture CollierMacmillan. Publisher London Gaj M. D Direct Somatic Embryogenesis as a Rapid and Efficient System for in vitro Regeneration of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell and Organ Culture. 64: Gaj M. D Factors Influencing Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration with Particular Reference to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Plant Growth Regulator. 43: Gardner F. P., Pearce R. B and Roger M Fisiologi Tanaman Budidaya. UI Press. Jakarta. George E. F and P. D. Sherrington Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture. Estern Press. England.

3 26 George, E.F. and Sherrington, P.D Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture handbook and Directory of Comercial Laboratories. England. Exegetic Ltd. Easterm Press. England. Goldsworthy, A. and M.G. Mina Electrical Patterns of Tobacco Cells in Media Containing Indole-3-Acetic Acid or2,4-d. Planta. 183: Grifftihs A. J. F, Suzuki J, Miller H, and Lewontin RC An Introduction Genetic Analysis. Fifth edition. W.H. Freeman and Co. 840p. Gunawan L. W Teknik Kultur jaringan Tumbuhan. Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan. Pusat Antar Universitas (PAU) Bioteknologi. IPB. Bogor. Hariati S Pengaruh Macam Ekstrak Bahan Organik dan ZPT Terhadap Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Hasil Persilangan pada Media Kultur. Caraka XXV No. 1. Hartley, C. W. S The Oil Palm (Elaeis guneensis Jacq.). Longmans London. Hartley, C. W. S The Oil Palm. Third Edition. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical, Conpublished in the United State with John Wiley and Son Inc. Huetterman C. A and Preece J. E Thidiazuron a Potent Cytokinin for Woody Plant Tissue Culture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 33: Jones L. H Endogenous Cytokinin in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Callus, Embryoids and Regenerant Plants Measured by Radioimmunoassay. Plant Cell TissueOrgan Culture.20 : Jones, L.H Endogenous Cytokinin in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Callus, Embryoids and Regenerant plants Measured by Radioimmunoassay. Plant Cell TissueOrgan Culture.20: Karjadi A. K dan Buchory A Pengaruh NAA dan BAP Terhadap Pertumbuhan Jaringan Meristem Bawang Putih pada Media B5. Jurnal Horticultural. 17 (3): Karp A Somaclonal Variation in Crop Improvement. Euphytica, 185, Karp, A Somaclonal Variation as a Tool For Crop Improvement. Euphytica. 185: Karunaratne S and Periyapperuma K Culture of Immature Embryos of Coconut, Cocos nucifera L. Callus Proliferation and Somatic Embryogenesis. COCOS. 8(1):

4 27 Kasi, P.D. dan Sumaryono, Perkembangan Kalus Embriogenik Sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) pada Tiga Sistem Kultur in vitro. Menara Perkebunan. 76: 1-9. Khaleghi, A. Khalighi, A. Sahraroo, M. Karimi, A. Rasoulnia, I.N. Ghafoori and R. Ataei In vitropropagation of Alstroemeria cv. Fuego. Am- Eur. Journal of Agriculture andenvironment Science. 3 (3): Khawniam T and Te-chato S Cryopreservation of Embryogenic Callus of Hybrid Tenera Oil Palm by Dehydration Technique and Evaluation of Somaclonal Variation by SSR Marker. Journal of Agricultural. 8(6): Kumar A Somaklonal Variation and Molecular Genetics Department. Scottish Crop Research Institute. Invergrowrie Dundee. Canada. p Kumari, P. I. George, S. T and Rajmohan, K Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on In Vitro Clonal Propagation of Dendrobium sonia Earsakul. Journal Bio Innovation. 2 (2): Larkin P. J and Scowcroft W. R Somaclonal variation-a novel source of variability from cell culture for plant improvement. Theoritical and Applied genetics. 60 : Leroy X. J, Leon K, and Branchard M BIP-ISSR and Somaclonal Variation; A New Molecular Technique for A Important In Vitro Phenomenon. Plant Biotechnol Mol Genet. ISSN: Unawan Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso-Chile. Lestari E G Peranan Zat Pengatur Tumbuh dalam Perbanyakan Tanaman Melalui Kultur Jaringan. Jurnal AgroBiogen. 7 (1): Lubis A Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Indonesia. Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Marihat. Sumatera Utara. Mariska I dan Sukmadjaja D Kultur Jaringan Abaka. Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetika pertanian. Miyashita, T., Takafumi, O., Fukashi, S., Hajime, A &Yoichiro, H Plant Regeneration With Maintenance Of The Endosperm Ploidy Level By Endosperm Culture In Lonicera caerulea var. Emphyllocalyx.Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 98(3) : Nasution, S. S Pertumbuhan Eksplan Bunga Betina kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada Media MS dengan Kombinasi 2,4-D dan BAP. [Skripsi]. Medan:, Program Sarjana.

5 28 Pannetier C. P. Arthuis and D.Et Lievoux Neoformation de Jeunes Plantes d Elaeis guineensis a Partir de Cals Primaries Obtenus Sur Fragments Foliares Cultive in vitro. Olegineux, 36: Paranjothy K, Othman R, Tan C. C, Wang G, Soh A. C Incidence of Abnormalities in Relation to in vitro Protocols. Di dalam : Rao V. et al, editor. Recent Development in OilPalm Tissue Culture and Biotechnology. Kuala Lumpur Paranjothy, K.R. Othman, C.C., Tan, G., Wang and Soh, A.C Incidence of Abnormalities in Relation to in Vitro Protocols. In Proc the 1993 ISOPB Int. Symp. Recent Development in Oil Palm Tissue Culture and Biotechnology. Kuala Lumpur. Pereira, E.S., Zanderluce, G.L. and Talita, A.B New Approaches to Improve the Efficiency of Somatic Embryogenesis in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) from Mature Zygotic Embryo. In vitro Celluler and Development Biology Plant. 49: Peterson, G. and Smith, R. l991. Effect of Abscisic Acid and Callus Size on Regeneration of American and International Rice Varieties. Plant Cell Reports. 10: Poonsapaya, P.M.W, Nabors, W. Kersi, and M. Vajrabhaya.l989. A comparison of methods for callus culture andplant regeneration of RD-25 rice (Oryza sativa L.) invitro laboratoris. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture. 16: Powell, W., Morgante, M., Andre, C., Hanafey, M., Vogel, J., Tingey, S. and Rafalski, A The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Molecular Breeding 2: Prince Z et al Oil Palm di dalam : Kole C, editor. Genome Mapping ang Molecular Breeding in Plants. Volume ke-6. Berlin : Springer-Verlag. Risza S Upaya Peningkatan Produktifitas Kelapa Sawit. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Rohlf, F.J NTSYS-pc, Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, Version 2.1. Exeter Publications.New York. Sahrawat A. K and Chand S Continuous Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Hypocotyls Segments of Psoralea corylifolia Lin. An Endangered and Medicinally Important Fabacea Plant. Current Science. 81(10):

6 29 Sanputawong S and Te-chato S Analysis of Somaclonal Variation of Callus, Somatic Embryo and Plant Regeneration of in vitro Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Journal of Agricultural Technology. 7: Setyamadjaja D Kelapa Sawit Teknik Budidaya, Panen, dan Pengelolaan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Seyyedyousefi S. R., Kaviani B and Dehkaei N. P The Effect of Different Concentration of NAA and BAP on Micropropagation of Alstroemeria. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 3(5): Sianifar N F et al Karakterisasi Secara Morfologi Abnormalitas Embrio Somatik Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Dari Eksplan Daun. Jurnal AgroBiogen 3 (1): Singh R., Nagappan J., Tan S. G., Panandam J. M and Cheah S. C Development of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers for Oil Palm and Their Application in Gnetic Mapping ang Fingerprinting of Tissue Culture Clones. Asia Pasific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biothecnology. 13(3): Skirvin R M, McPheeters K D, Norton M Sources and Frequency of Somaclonal Variation. Horticultural Science. 29: Teixera, J. B., Söndahl, M. R., and Kirby, E. G Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Inflorescences of Oil Palm. Plant Cell Reports. 13: Thawaro S Screening and Detection of Hybrid Oil Palms by DNA Markers and Theirs Propagation. Songkhla: Prince of Songkla University Thawaro, S. and Te-chato, S. (2009). Application of molecular markers in the hybridverification and assessment of somaclonal variation from oil palm propagated in vitro.scienceasia. 35: Thomas, T. D and Chaturvedi, R Endosperm Culture: a Novel Method for Triploid Plant Production. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 93: Thuzar, M., Vanavichit, A., Tragoonrung, S & Jantasuriyarat Efficient and Rapid Plant Generation of Oil Palm Zygotic Embryos cv. Tenera Through Somatic Embryogenesis. Acta Physiological Plantarum. 33: Tingey, S.V. and DelTufo, J.P Genetic Analysis with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers. Plant Physiology. 101: Tondok A. R Production and Marketing of Indonesian Palm Oil.

7 30 Toruan-Mathius, N, Bangun S. I. I dan Maria-Bintang Analisis abnormalitas tanaman kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) hasil kultur jaringan dengan teknik Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Menara Perkebunan. 69 (2): Touchet B, Pannetier, C and De Duval, Y Plant Regeneration From Embryogenic Suspensions Culture of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Plant Cell Reports. Urdiroz M., Garrido-Galo N., Martin J. J and Barondiaran X Effect of Light on the Organogenic Ability of Garlic Roots Using a One-step in vitro System. Plant Cell Reports. 10 : Van Harten A. M Mutation Breeding. Theory and Practikal Applications. Cambribge Univ. Press. Wareing P. F and Phillips I. D. J The Control of Growth ang Differentiations in Plants. Pergamon. Press. Oxford. Wattimena G. A bioteknologi Tanaman. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. IPB. Bogor. Wetter L. R dan F. Constabel Metode Kultur Jaringan Tanaman. Edisi Ke- 2 Widianto MB, penerjemah. Bandung. Institut Teknologi Bandung. Terjemahan dari: Plant Tissue Culture Methods. Widiastoety D Pengaruh Auksin dan Sitokinin Terhadap Pertumbuhan Planlet Anggrek Mokara. Jurnal Horticultural. 24(3): Wong G, S. P. Chong, C. C Tan, and A.C. Soh Liquid Suspension Culture- A potential Technique for Mass Production of Oil Palm Clones. Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia Wood B J Oil Palm Science. A Brief Guide. The Incorporated Society of Planters. Zulkarnain Kultur Jaringan Tanaman. Edisi 1. Cetakan ke-1. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta.